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Symptoms and Definitive Treatment of Calcaneal Spur

Patients with calcaneal spur generally suffer from sharp, stabbing pain that usually occurs in the morning when they take their first steps and start walking. Calcaneal spur pain decreases with warming but recurs after standing for a long time or changing position from sitting to standing. Calcaneal spurs are most common among runners and overweight people, and wearing shoes that do not support the foot enough also increases the risk of calcaneal spurs.
 

What is a calcaneal spur?

A calcaneal spur is a bony appendage that develops in the heel bone. The human ankle is made up of seven bones, the largest of which is the heel bone. Occasionally there is a tingling sensation in the bone that becomes painful and can interfere with walking.

The most important cause of heel pain is calcaneal spurs; Interestingly, this pain is not caused by a thorn, it is the pain that causes the calcaneal spur. These spurs are caused by inflammation of the plantar fascia. The plantar fascia is a wide band that runs from the heel to the toes.
If the fascia becomes inflamed and this inflammation persists, it can cause calcium to build up at the junction of the fascia with the heel. This abnormal calcium deposit is in the form of a small thorn-like appendage called a calcaneal spur. Calcaneal spurs are not painful in themselves, but the pain is caused by stretching of the fascia.
 

Causes and factors of calcaneal spurs

As we have said, the cause of this disease is pressure or damage to the heel tissue, which leads to inflammation of the plantar fascia and ossification of the plantar fascia. Several factors can cause this problem:
* Overweight (calcaneal spurs are more common in obese people). Sudden weight gain during pregnancy
- Flat feet.
* Biomechanical problems (abnormalities that lead to abnormal motion).
 Inflammation of the soles of the feet for any reason.
- Wearing inappropriate shoes (too high heel of shoes, tight shoes, shoes without heels or flat)
- Running (walking is less harmful than running).
- Stand for a long time.
- Tea consumption is effective both in causing primary inflammation of the plantar fascia and in the secondary deposition of calcium and the formation of calcaneal spurs.
 

Signs and complications of calcaneal spurs

Calcaneal spurs usually present with pain. The pain in the heel is vague, but sometimes it is felt as a sharp pain, and the person expresses that there is something like a needle in the heel that causes pain due to pressures such as walking. The place of pain is in the center of the heel or the inner edge; The severity of calcaneal spurs is greater in the early morning, after waking up and after resting, and decreases with walking.
This pain is very severe in the first step after a long rest. Walking on hard and uneven surfaces and carrying heavy objects can increase pain. Sometimes, pain develops spontaneously, which also remains at the break. In some cases where the disease is not yet very advanced, the person may be completely asymptomatic and the disease may be diagnosed by chance on a plain radiograph.
 

Treatment of calcaneal spurs

The affected person, due to pain when walking, tries not to put too much pressure on the affected leg; As a result, he limps, and if left untreated, causes discomfort in the lower back and knees. Therefore, heel spurs must be treated. The treatment principles for heel spurs are simple and include the following:
Rest: The first step in treating heel spurs is rest. In many cases, rest alone has eliminated even severe pain. The patient should also refrain from standing for long periods.
Weight loss: It is effective in treating heel spurs.
- Using heel pads: You can get these pads from pharmacies and use them permanently in your shoes. The pad will reduce pressure on the heel and relieve foot pain.
- Doing exercises that are effective in treating heel spurs:
A. Plantar fascia stretch: Place a wide band on the sole of the foot and under the toes and pull the two ends of the foot in the hand so that the toes are close together. Hold this position for thirty seconds. Repeat this seven or eight times a day.
 
 
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In what places should we use hearing protectors

Noise is one of the factors that affect the hearing system. Hearing protectors should be used to guard ears against this physical factor. Safety earphones should be used when exposed to noises of 85 decibels or more for 8 hours, annoying noises, or sounds such as short bursts.
 

Types of hearing protectors

Earmuffs, which are placed on the eardrum and protect the ear structure without direct contact with it.
Earplugs are those that are placed inside the external ear canal, blocking it and partially blocking the air passage.
 

Comparison of earmuff and earplug

The earmuff has fewer health problems because it is not connected to the inside of the ear. In contrast, the shared use of earplugs between people increases the possibility of transmitting microbial and fungal infections from one to another, while this is not the case with earmuffs. The earplug increases the possibility of transmitting environmental contaminants into the user`s ear and generally causes itching. The earplug is lighter and, more importantly, cheaper than the earmuff. In general, according to the mentioned points, the use of earmuff is more recommended in terms of its many positive features.
There is also a type of phone that is made of silicon and is made for each person separately, which covers the inside of the ear. This type of protector is called a stereo phone. If the volume is more than 111 dB, you should use both earmuff and earplug.
 
It is recommended that people exposed to noise use hearing protectors that absorb noise at frequencies between 511 and 4111 Hz. For other frequencies, they shouldn`t block the voice so that workers can easily hear the conversations of their colleagues and officials, while there is a significant reduction in noise pollution of loud noises.
 
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Waste and its types

Waste is all the residue from human and animal activities that is usually solid and unusable. According to the Law on Waste Management, this word refers to solids, liquids, and gases which are directly or indirectly the result of human activity and are considered useless by the producer.
Waste management is a set of coherent and systematic rules regarding the control of production, storage, collection, transportation, processing, and disposal of waste, following the best principles of public health, economy, resource protection, aesthetics, and other environmental requirements. By this definition, waste management includes all administrative, financial, legal, design, and engineering works in which the solutions to the problems of waste are left to the government by the residents. Solutions may involve a complex cross-sectoral relationship between disciplines such as political science, local and urban planning, geography, economics, public health, sociology, statistics, communications, and resource conservation, as well as engineering and materials science.
The term waste is general and includes all sources and types of different categories, compounds, and properties. Waste that should be discarded may be valuable to others or in another situation, but it is not valuable to the owner.
 

Types of waste

According to the Law on Waste Management, waste is divided into five groups, the types of which are given along with the relevant definitions:
- Normal waste: refers to all waste that is normally produced from the daily activities of humans in cities, villages, and beyond. Examples of this waste include household waste and construction waste.
- Medical waste (hospital): All infectious and harmful waste caused by hospitals, health centers, medical diagnostic laboratories, and other similar centers. Hazardous hospital waste is excluded from this definition.
- Special wastes (hazardous): All wastes that require special care due to the presence of at least one of the hazardous properties such as toxicity, pathogenicity, explosive or flammable, corrosive, and medical wastes.  Also, some normal, industrial, and agricultural wastes that need special management are considered as special wastes.
- Agricultural waste: Waste from production activities in the agricultural sector, animal carcasses (livestock, poultry, and aquatic animals), rotten or unusable agricultural products.
- Industrial waste: All wastes from industrial and mining activities and refining, oil, gas, and petrochemical industries and power plants such as chips, spills, or industrial sludge.
 
Knowledge of waste composition is necessary to evaluate and select collection equipment, processing, design programs, etc. On the other hand, to identify hazardous wastes, it is necessary to have sufficient knowledge about the nature and composition of the wastes. The ratio between different combinations of municipal waste depends on several factors, including the level of well-being of the people, people`s perception of the consumption of various materials, and the method of packaging materials.
 

On-site waste handling, storage, and processing

The handling, storage, and processing of waste at the production site before it is collected are some of the most effective elements in waste management. It is important to understand this element because it will have important effects on public health, the next effective elements, and the public perception of the waste management system. It is necessary to pay attention to the safety points in handling, storage, and processing at the waste site because some wastes are hazardous and failure to observe safety issues at different stages of handling, storage, and processing at the waste site can lead to accidents.
 

Hazardous waste

As the name implies, hazardous waste, if not properly managed, can lead to irreparable damage to humans, animals, the environment, and facilities. Due to the importance of proper and principled management of such wastes, different countries have established special rules and regulations for its management in the stages of production, storage, handling, transportation, and final disposal.
The increasing growth of chemical products, as well as the consumption of these substances in various industrial processes, is a clear sign of an industrial society. Although the use of these substances in various fields has greatly contributed to economic development, studies and experiments show that there are significant adverse effects associated with these substances. The adverse effects of hazardous waste are very different and varied. Some of these effects are short-lived and severe. Acute poisoning by hazardous chemicals is a clear example of this type of effect. Experiences from other countries show that children in the age group of 1 to 10 years are affected. Another category of health effects is long-term effects. These complications become apparent over a relatively long period and are mostly related to toxic properties, bioaccumulation, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and chemicals. Accordingly, the chemical composition of a waste product must be identified in terms of toxicity, carcinogenicity, adverse effects on the fetus and infant, as well as mutations and possibly other side effects. It should be noted that what makes some hazardous wastes more important than others is the extent of their use and application in various sectors of the economy.
 
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Types of leather, based on animal skin cut

Leather is a durable and flexible material that is produced with the skin of animals. The most common raw material for leather production is cowhide. It is the leather tanning process that stabilizes and resists skin proteins, especially collagen, to increase the thermal, chemical, and microbiological stability of cow skin, making it useful to various leather products.
Cow skin is made of two integrated layers of corium and grain texture. The collagen fibers in the skin`s corium are thinner and more flexible. As you move to the outer skin tissue, it becomes thicker and firmer where the fibers are more densely and tightly wrapped. The corium layer becomes thicker as the animal ages as well. For this reason, the skin of calves is thinner and softer than the skin of larger animals. The outer tissue covered by the hair can be dotted and scratched such as insect bites, scars, or signs of burns. Sometimes it causes the upper part of the outer tissue of the skin to be peeled off and become smoother to make the leather look uniform.
 
Another factor influencing the quality of the leather is the physiology of the animal`s skin (cow), which is one of the most complex issues in the field of leather. Several factors are involved in the physiology of the skin and leather produced; Nutrition, climate, habitat, and skin of different parts of the animal body affect the quality of the finished leather. The skin of the face and legs of the animals has the lowest quality and the central parts of the animal`s body (back and waist) have the best quality of leather.
 

Types of leather, based on different cuts of the cowhide

- Grain leather
- Split leather
- Suede leather
- Nubuck leather
When the skin is completely shaved with all the top texture of cow skin, it is called grain leather. Even despite skin blemishes, grain leather is more expensive and more in demand due to its high durability. The cowhide has three general categories: aniline (ink), semi-aniline, and protected leather. Aniline leathers are processed using soluble dyes to preserve the natural texture of the skin and have no pigment or surface coating. This makes them look like natural leather, but they are more sensitive to scratches and stains. Aniline leathers are coated with pigments, thus hiding more stains. Therefore, these types of leathers have a more uniform appearance and coating, and as a result, have more protection. Protected leathers have a non-leathery coating that adheres to the cow`s natural leather as protection.
The lower part of the leather, the part where the two layers of Corium and Grain meet, is introduced by different names and can be confusing. Many people refer to this layer as "genuine leather", however, the term is not used consistently. You may come across many similar terms for this layer of skin and the leather produced from it. Modified leather, embossed leather, coated leather, dyed leather, etc. are among these titles, which here we introduce as split leather.
The middle layer of the skin can be divided into even thinner split leathers and used for various applications. A polymer coating is usually used to make split leather look like grain leather, but split leather is not as strong and durable. Another application of split leather is suede leather production, in which a special polish is applied to the leather to make it uneven and velvety. Suede is sometimes confused with nubuck leather. Suede is made of the inner part of the animal skin and has soft and short villi, while nubuck is made of the outermost layer of the skin and has high strength and is more resistant to scratches. Although nubuck is more durable than suede, due to the special softness and stability of suede, it has its application.
 

How to detect synthetic leather

There are several ways to simulate and produce leather. Split leather is sometimes polished in such a way that it plays a prominent role and looks more like high-value grain leather. It is not easy to distinguish artificial leather from natural leather. Today, with the development of the polymer and textile industry, various samples of synthetic leathers have been produced that are very similar in appearance to natural leather. It needs to be tested to distinguish it, but synthetic leathers, which are currently mainly available in the bag and shoe industry, can be detected by simple methods. The first method is to pay attention to the color and model of the leather`s back. The back of synthetic leather is usually made of fabric or plastic, which can be distinguished from natural leather. This type of diagnosis is also made easier by cutting the leather. Synthetic leather is usually not stretchy, while grain leather has a very slight discoloration when bent or stretched. Another method is to heat the tested leather. Natural leather, when burned with a small flame such as a match or lighter, emits an odor similar to hair burning, while synthetic leather smells like burning plastic.
 
Another point that should be considered by consumers is that many of the terms used in the leather industry are fixed and inconsistent in different forums. The most common mistake made in this case is to use the term genuine leather. Genuine leather is mostly used to describe low-quality split leather, while many buyers assume that the term genuine leather is used in the opposite sense to counterfeit leather or fake leather. Many sellers use the term genuine leather to express the fact that their products are not counterfeit leather. This makes customers skeptical, even if the product is made of very durable and suitable leather. Therefore, the task of Ark Safety Industry as a manufacturer of safety shoes, military boots, office shoes, and hiking boots is to have a complete explanation for its customers in the field of leather used in their products.
 
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Get ready for winter conditions by wearing the right safety shoes

Even if the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has only set out the general requirements for cold weather protection clothing, this does not mean that protecting workers from the severe cold conditions is not in the employer`s concern. Cold weather can be an occupational hazard that can lead to injuries, workers` compensation claims, reduced work speeds, and lower performance. Although OSHA does not require employers to provide winter equipment, providing safety clothing and footwear for employees is worth the investment. Appropriate safety clothing and shoes are in a way that prevent cold air from entering the clothing in winter and waste body heat. Enables employees to work effectively in a freezing work environment. Even when road workers are on the roads and highways surrounded by drivers in winter weather, safety clothing and shoes suitable for the cold season and severe weather conditions are even more important for their safety and increase their capacity.
 
Safety clothing such as coats, overalls, and sarees should not only protect workers from the cold but should also be designed to allow them to easily carry out their duties with flexibility and freedom in movement. When choosing winter protective clothing, look for coats and jackets with features such as waterproof to protect against rain and throat protectors to prevent wind penetration to eliminate the cold. Comfortable clothes such as jeans are not a good protector in cold weather. Jeans easily absorb water from melting snow or rain and can not have much insulation. Layered clothes can also be a good choice because they trap air between the layers and warm the body more than a thick jacket or coat. Coats with removable liners enable workers to easily adjust the layers they wear depending on the situation, which can vary during a working day.
 
Winter slip protection with proper safety shoes
Slipping is one of the most common workplace hazards and often leads to workers` damages as a result of head injuries, back injuries, bone fractures, and tears. Of course, maintaining safe working conditions is the most important way to prevent these accidents. However, suitable winter shoes play a very important role in the safety of workers and the prevention of slipping and falling. Aside from the outsole of working shoes, having a great insole also plays a big role in keeping your feet comfortable throughout the day. It is important to buy the right insole for your work. Insoles have many benefits, including preventing further foot pain and fatigue.
 
Depending on the nature and environment of the workplace, safety or protective shoes may include features of a steel toe cap, composite toe cap, ergonomic sole, non-slip outsole, cold-resistant, heat-resistant, and chemical-resistant boots. Many shoes are made of grain leather. Grain leather shoes are easier to wear due to their stretch and flexibility, and the foot feels more comfortable all day long. Waterproof shoes can prevent frostbite in wet conditions, which is especially suitable for workers who often have to stay in wet places. A suitable outsole that stretches would protect workers from slipping on snow and ice. Anti-slippery soles provide reliable traction in winter conditions and are very suitable.

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Special Signs of Safety shoes

Do not miss this article if you are involved in buying safety shoes and have questions about the signs of safety shoes. In several articles, you have seen some of these codes and different signs related to safety shoes, but you do not know how to use them. Choosing the right safety shoes for your work environment is vital, and the safety shoe signs give you the important specifications and features of your shoes. It is important to know all the features of your work shoes to make sure that the shoes you use are suitable for your work environment and conditions. But do you know what the codings and signs on safety shoes say?
 
Safety shoes are usually tested according to European standards. According to these standards, the Iranian Standards Organization also relates to Iranian safety shoes. The following is the European standard number EN 20345:2011, which is equivalent to the Iranian standard 1136:
 
You may have already seen EN ISO standards in other shoes. Shoes designed before 2004 and also produced until 2004 are in accordance with EN ISO 20345: 2004, but after editing in 2011 are under EN 20345:2011.
 
SB: Abbreviation for Safety Basic, which is the standard basis for safety shoes. SB safety shoes must have a toe cap with an impact resistance of 200 joules.
  
S1: Having SB properties and having antistatic properties, energy absorption in the heel area, and resistance to fuel or oil materials
 
S2: Having S1 properties and water resistance of the shoe sole
 
S3: Having S2 characteristics and resistance to the penetration of sharp objects into the soles of the feet such as chips or nails
 
S4: Antistatic properties, energy absorption in the heel area of the shoe, resistance to fuel and oily materials, toe cap with resistance up to 200 joules, and completely waterproof
 
S5: Characteristics of S4 and resistance to penetration of sharp and sharp objects into the sole
 

Slipper safety shoe symptoms

Safety shoes slip test is classified into three categories:
 
SRA: Shoe slip test on a wet ceramic tile with a diluted soap solution such as sodium sulfate
 
SRB: Shoe slip test on flat steel with glycerol
 
SRC: If the shoe can pass both of the SRA and SRB tests
 
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How to take care of safety shoes

Safety shoes are the most important part of personal protective equipment and play an essential role in worker safety. However, daily use of safety shoes, depending on the environment and nature of the work, can make the shoes less durable. Outside environments, harsh working conditions, chemicals, mud, or corrosive materials that you come in contact with are all factors that negatively affect the performance of safety shoes. That is why they must be cleaned regularly to ensure their efficiency.
Daily maintenance of shoes is easy and anyone can do it alone. The best way to dramatically increase the life and performance of your shoes is to clean them regularly every day.
 
Here are some tips for proper care and how we can extend the life of our work shoes, stay tuned.
 
1.Do not apply too much pressure when cleaning the shoes, especially when the shoes are new!
 
2.Our feet produce heat and moisture. These are factors that can affect the durability of safety shoes (as well as the spread of bacteria that cause foot odor). Change your shoes at the end of your workday. Shoe soles should be dry. Let the soles dry in the open air! There is no need for a heat source to dry the shoes and only open-air is enough!
 
3.Always loosen the shoelaces completely before removing the shoe and use the shoehorn both at home and work, as this protects the heel part of the shoe from damage and brittleness prematurely.
 
4.Clean your shoes every day! Remove dust and seams at the top and bottom. Remove stones that are in the grooves of the sole and can cause gradual wear. You can use cleaning brushes to clean the crevices of the sole to check for signs of shoe wear (cracking, peeling in the area between the sole and the upper material, any seams).
Leather-soled shoes can only be cleaned with a damp cloth and suede shoes with a soft brush. Do not forget to always keep your shoes dry!
 
5.Always have a pair of safety shoes available! For the shoes to dry well and reduce the problems caused by excessive sweating, it is important to use a second pair of shoes.
 
6.Use a sponge soaked in warm water to remove stains that are easier to remove. To remove stains that are difficult to remove, you can dip a soft cloth in a little white vinegar and use it to clean.
 
7.To clean the leather, you can use a cotton swab soaked in water and cleansing milk and clean the surface of any dirt with slow movements.
 
8. Do not use a damp cloth to clean suede shoes! Only use brushes with plastic bristles that have good density. For stains that are difficult to clean, you can use special suede cleaners. If you do not manage to remove the stain with the mentioned items, soak a sponge cloth in some vinegar and gently wipe the stain with it.
 
9.If your job is to deal with oil stains, it is recommended to use cotton soaked in cleansing milk.
 
10. Never use strong cleaners to remove dirt or stains!
 
11. If you use work shoes in harsh and humid environments, you should use leather wax. In this way, the shoes remain flexible and waterproof for a long time. Especially in the winter when the shoes are exposed to snow and mud, try to soak them regularly in leather wax.
 
12.Do not allow shoes to dry near heat sources or in direct sunlight. This will cause them to become brittle and cracked!
 
13. Safety shoes should never be washed in the washing machine unless explicitly stated.
 
 
Proper care of safety shoes is not just a matter of beauty and hygiene, but also a matter of safety and the effectiveness of a protective standard.
Your shoes ensure your safety and protection in the workplace. Take good care of them!
 
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Features of standard workwear

Industrial work clothes are considered as one of the personal protective equipment and all employees must be present at their workplace with appropriate work clothes. Employees` work uniforms have characteristics that are provided to employees under special regulations. Workwear, as a universal covering of the body, usually protects the hands and feet against environmental conditions.
 

Characteristics and standards of industrial workwear

Work clothes should be the right size and fit for the user. Employees who work with or near machines must wear work clothes that are not open or torn. Have night vision as much as possible. It is strictly forbidden to hang chains, watches, keys, etc. on work clothes. In the workplace where there is a risk of explosion or fire, the use of drains or glasses made of solenoids, as well as other flammable materials, is strictly prohibited for the relevant employees. If working requires employees to constantly roll up their sleeves, they should wear short-sleeved workwear.
Employees working in dusty, flammable, or poisonous environments should not wear pocket or double-breasted clothing, as dust and such materials may be present. For employees who work with corrosive or harmful substances, water, and gas should not penetrate their clothing. Clothing material should be suitable for the type of substance or materials they work with. Employees working with acidic and radioactive materials must be seamless and non-perforated with special caps, shoes, and gloves made of special and impermeable material.
 
Work clothes should not be loose, especially the parts of the sleeves, and should not be so tight that the body parts are exposed when working. The sleeves should not be turned upside down or piped.
Tip 1: Workers whose clothing is contaminated with petroleum or hazardous chemicals should immediately wash or change their clothing and wash the part of the body that has been in contact with. None of the employees has the right to approach the fire, flame, or other heat sources with clothes soaked in petroleum or chemicals.
Tip 2: In case of tear, damage, or contamination with dangerous petroleum or chemical materials, you should clean it and if it needs to be replaced, inform the relevant supervisor.
Tip 3: Clothes soaked in oil or grease should be removed immediately, as it may cause skin discomfort.
 

What material should industrial workwear be made of?

Fabric material according to the working conditions and the need for the appearance of clothing in terms of resistance to shrinkage and also the lack of static electricity from a mixture of about 71% cotton and 31% polyester and weighing 320 gr / m2 to 420 gr / m2 and according to Climatic conditions and different seasons should be considered. In situations where there is a possibility of burning due to the shedding of pleats or under the influence of high heat, such as welding work clothes, the material of work clothes should be 11% cotton. To increase the strength of the fabric with a crooked texture with a high density of 2 threads and a fabric and forty-two yarns of the ring-type should be used.
To make the dye more durable and to prevent the fabric after washing, as well as to prevent the fabric from melting, reactive dyes have been used in dyeing the fabric. Durable work clothes should be produced by choosing high-quality fabric, using strong stitching, and also double seam spinning. Using the right pattern, the work clothes should be well-sewn and well-tailored, and provided in standard sizes.
 

What logo and signs should standard work clothes have?

Work clothes should be such as to indicate in which job group or unit the person wearing the dress works. The symbol can be a logo, a code, or even the color of the clothes. The following can be considered for the signs of workwear:
• The background color of the logo or the color of the clothes must be clear to indicate different units.
• The logo should be prepared by using high quality and fixed silk screen printing.
• The place of installation of the logo is on the chest or left arm.

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Signing cooperation agreement between Ark Safety Industry and the Health Faculty of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

Today, industry and academia are two key institutions for any society. The cooperation of the industry and academia has become a precondition for the development of societies. The existence of specialized scientific staff, research, and laboratory capabilities are considered a basic precondition for the development of industries in different countries. Fortunately, today, universities, as centers for the training of specialized personnel, have a very suitable platform for scientific, research, and laboratory activities. On the other hand, the industry is known as the main centers of work and activity, as practical laboratories and a place to turn knowledge into action. Therefore, it can be said that industry and university are complementary to each other, and every society needs these two categories and their effective relationship to achieve their development goals. Today, universities can cooperate with industry in various fields, including research-educational cooperation, technology transfer, and so on.
Unfortunately, in recent years, in our country, contrary to the macro policies of communication, the relationship between academia and industry has become a major challenge for both parties and many problems in this regard have been faced by business partners and academics. Ark Safety Industry, as one of the leading industries in the production of personal protective equipment to advance development goals and protect the workforce in the country`s industries, needs to use the existing potentials in prestigious universities in line with the explained goals. In this regard, it has signed an agreement with the Health Faculty of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences to establish and expand educational and research cooperation, especially in the field of HSE in the following areas:
1- Consulting and implementation of research-applied projects required by the company, especially in health promotion, the establishment of management systems related to HSE based on existing criteria
2- Holding seminars, workshops, webinars, and short-term training courses to upgrade the scientific and technical level of the company`s experts and researchers and other stakeholders of the company and issuing relevant certificates
3- Judging and supervising the company`s research projects as needed
4- Reciprocal use of available information resources and equipment such as libraries, laboratories, measuring devices, etc. in compliance with administrative and financial rules and regulations
5- Conducting mutual scientific visits and accepting interns by the company
6- Providing advice on areas related to the cooperation agreement by the Health Faculty staff
7- Advice on designing different scenarios for the production of clips, animations, and educational contents
8- Supervision of the Health Faculty on HSE-related educational contents prepared by the company`s experts
 
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Making shoe molds in China

Today, the exchange of information and technologies is one of the important pillars of economic activities. The use of modern technologies in the world will reduce costs, increase product quality, and ultimately customer satisfaction. Tabriz is one of the powerful shoe production centers in Iran. But with the advent of Chinese shoes, rising production costs, and the problems of the paint industry, the production of safety shoes in this city has declined. Iran has a young population who care about their appearance and according to Islamic values are very careful about their cleanliness and virtue, while Iranian shoe manufacturers do not have the power to produce a lot of shoe varieties.
To solve these problems and produce flexible shoes, modern machines should be used to minimize production time and increase variety. Due to the high speed of mold making in China, we are now turning to mold making in this country to resume Iranian production and at least prevent the import of foreign shoes to Iran. In the meantime, we have cooperated with Chinese craftsmen to launch a diverse product line of shoes, and we are ready to cooperate and provide solutions to domestic manufacturers and improve the production of the Iranian shoe industry. Ark Safety Industry is the official representative of China Molding in Iran.
 
 
 

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Tabriz Live Shoe Museum

Shoe sewing was performed live at the Tabriz Shoe Museum with the art of the veterans of the Tabriz shoe industry.
Tabriz shoe industry has a long history and world fame and to introduce the value and importance of Tabriz shoes with the help of Tabriz Shoemakers Union from Tabriz Live Shoe Museum held in Tabriz Municipality building located in Saat Square in March 20th, 2018. Master Mr. Eghbali sewed shoes for Nowruz travelers to introduce the production process of Tabriz leather shoes. This museum has been set up with the help of Mr. Manafi, a veteran of the Tabriz shoe industry. The mayor of Tabriz also visited this exhibition.
 
In this museum, in addition to live performances of the shoe production process, old tools of the shoe industry were also exhibited.
 
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Iranian shoe production ranks 12th in the world

Iran is the 12th largest shoe producer in the world, producing 177 million pairs of shoes annually. "This country has a 0.8% share in global footwear production," said the head of the Iranian Association of Managers and Specialists in the Shoe Industry.
Ali Lashgari, who spoke at the ninth meeting of the Industry and Mining Commission of the Tehran Chamber of Commerce, Industries, Mines and Agriculture, noted: China is the largest shoe producer in the world with an annual production of 13.52 billion pairs and 57% global share. China accounts for 34.9% of global footwear exports.
He also added: The consumption of shoes in Iran is estimated at 227 million pairs per year, of which Iran`s share of world consumption is 1.1 percent and the share of imports from consumption is 22.4 percent. Simply put, the shoe consumption rate in Europe and the United States was 7 pairs per year; But this coefficient is 2 in Iran. This means that if people consume three pairs instead of two pairs of shoes, the country`s shoe industry will prosper.
 
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Safety Data Sheets

As mentioned in the site`s article on the "Hazards That Threaten People's Lives in the Workplace", one of the most common hazards is the hazards of chemicals. In recent years, one of the solutions offered to reduce the damage caused by chemicals has been material safety information. In this regard, manufacturers were required to provide safety and health information for their products. That`s why material safety data sheets were created. One of the most important issues in the development of material safety data sheets has been the discussion of the Right to Know Act. This law, which has been implemented in many countries, outlines that everyone has the right to know what kind of substance and what side effects and harms they are dealing with in the workplace. To this end, safety data sheets were considered as a very convenient way to convey material safety and health information to people.
 

SDS or MSDS

Safety Data Sheets, also known as Material Safety Data Sheets or Product Safety Data Sheets, are documents that contain information such as physical properties (such as boiling point, freezing point, flammability point), toxicity, health effects, first aid, reactivity, storage method, protective equipment requirements, necessary measures in case of leakage, etc. Preparing and installing material safety data sheets in the workplace is a good way to provide material safety information. There have been different formats for MSDS for a long time, these formats were different from country to country and even in some cases from organization to organization. This led to the standardization of material safety information format, so SDSs were created.
 
SDS and MSDS are two words that are often used interchangeably. MSDSs are the SDSs that were called before the creation of the Harmonized System for the classification and labeling of chemicals. The small difference between MSDSs and SDSs is due to the presentation format. With the creation of the Globally Harmonized System (GHS), SDSs, which are a standardized format consisting of 16 sections, replaced MSDSs in providing material safety information. In this format, risk expressions, safety expressions, and visual symbols are used to provide information. SDSs usually consist of several pages. In contrast, MSDSs do not have a mandatory format, do not have a standard wording, and can vary in quality of content.
 

Using MSDS is necessary for three groups of people:

1- Workers who are exposed to chemicals in the workplace.
2- Workers who need to be aware of the proper transport and storage of materials and also the safe use of chemicals.
3- People who take action to control the situation during an emergency such as firefighters, chemical equipment crews, emergency technicians, and people in emergency rooms.
Concerning consumers, one point should be noted that SDSs are not required for all people who use materials. For example, a person who uses paint once a year to paint his building doesn`t need SDSs, but for a painter who works 40 hours a week, it is necessary.
Health and safety experts usually have two concerns about SDSs. Where to get the SDS of the materials they use? And appropriate guidance for SDS usage?
Today, the SDS of materials can be obtained in a variety of ways. For example, today most companies that produce or even distribute chemicals send the materials SDS to the buyer. That`s why most industries have a set of safety data sheets. If your company has not received such sheets, you can contact your supplier and request these sheets. If the supplier can not meet your needs, be sure to contact the customer service of the manufacturer. Another way is the university and some industries websites. Usually, some universities and industries have a set of material safety sheets on their site. Other sources include the Internet, which usually has a large number of safety sheets available for free. In some cases, buying software or buying subscriptions from reputable sites can also be helpful in this regard.
 
Some reputable sites providing safety data sheets are listed below that can be used to obtain a large number of materials SDSs.
1- msds.com
2- https: //www.msdsonline.com/sds-search/
3- http: //www.msdsprovider.com/
4- https://chemicalsafety.com/sds-search/
5- https: //hazard.com//msds/index.php
6- http://www.cambridgesoft.com/databases/login/?serviceid=128
7- https: //apps.netmsds.com/cgi-bin/cpvweb
 
People can get the information they need about safety data sheets by attending safety conferences and courses. There are also several suitable and valid guides on the Internet that are mentioned below.
1- American Occupational Safety and Health(OSHA) Guidance: This organization, which is part of the US Department of Labor, aims to ensure safe and healthy working conditions for male and female employees by enforcing mandatory standards and providing training, counseling, and education. OSHA was created in the 1970s. This organization provides material safety data sheet guidance.
2- Canadian Center for Occupational Safety and Health (CCOHS) Guidance: This center was established in 1978 by a majority vote of the Canadian Parliament to promote the physical, mental and emotional health of the Canadian workforce. The center provides guidance to increase people`s awareness of safety data sheets.
3. American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Guide: This association provides instructions on safety data sheets.
 
Just Take the First Step...
 

Hazards That Threaten People's Lives in the Workplace P2

Increasing occupational safety and health is one of the most important policies of any country to reduce the damage caused by accidents and occupational diseases to employers and society. How can these staggering costs be avoided? The answer is simple, identify hazards, and follow workplace safety rules. In this article, we are going to introduce the remainder of the 10 important hazards that people face in their workplaces.
 

6- Biological hazards

Another danger that can cause harm to people in the workplace is biological factors. People are usually exposed to these factors due to working conditions, type of activity, consumption of various substances. These factors fall into five general categories: Viruses, Bacteria, Rickettsia, Fungi, and Parasites. These factors can greatly affect the work environment. Before the outbreak of coronavirus in 2020, these factors were not given much attention in the workplace. This has caused many industries to face serious problems and shutdowns. The outbreak of this virus showed that organizations and industries should prepare themselves for such crises. Changing the way things are done can be very effective in controlling such diseases. Carrying out activities remotely, performing engineering measures (such as improving ventilation systems), training, and employing specialized personnel in the field of health can be very effective in controlling these factors.
 

7- Chemical hazards

Chemicals in the workplace are generally materials in the form of gas, liquid, or solid. Chemicals include all raw materials, intermediate materials, and supplementary materials in the production process. These substances can have different physiological effects on humans. Generally, they are divided into several categories, including 1- Inflammatory and stimulant substances 2- Suffocating substances 3- Anesthetics and narcotics 4- Systemic toxins 5- Other suspended substances.
In addition to their physiological effects on humans, chemicals can be the source of many other accidents, such as fires and explosions in the workplace. It is required that MSDS of all chemicals should be available in the workplace.
 

8- Ergonomic hazards

Ergonomics is the science of human interaction with the environment and various tools. Ergonomics is closely related to the safety and health of employees in the workplace. Ergonomics is a science that designs work environments, tools, and tasks to match the physiological, psychological, anatomical, and abilities of individuals. In short, ergonomics is the science of adapting the work environment to the abilities of workers and preventing disease, injury, and stress in people. Poor ergonomic design can lead to muscle strain and skeletal and muscular injuries. Therefore, it is recommended that employers use ergonomic knowledge in designing tools and workstations, as well as in planning work shifts to minimize injuries to people.
 

9- Physically harmful factors in the workplace

Physical factors in the workplace are divided into different categories. These factors include noise, vibration, heat, cold, poor lighting, and radiation in the workplace. In addition to having a direct impact on people`s health, these factors can be a secondary cause of many other diseases and injuries in the workplace. For example, loud noise in addition to hearing damage, physiological and psychological effects can cause accidents in the workplace. The important thing about these factors is the personal expertise and ability of individuals. Susceptible individuals can be harmed much sooner in inappropriate environments.
 

10- Lack of visual and audio equipment

Failure to use warning devices can be considered a hazard in the workplace. Unfortunately, many workplaces do not have warning devices. Signs, stickers, hangers, and other safety signs in the workplace visually remind people of the dangers. Proper use of these tools can prevent accidents in the workplace. Also in case of emergency, these are the tools that show the emergency exit for people and inform them of the occurrence of an emergency.
 
Just take the first step ...
 

Hazards That Threaten People's Lives in the Workplace P1

Did you know that according to the official statistics available in the country, about 10,000 job accidents occur in Iran every year? Unfortunately, about 900 people lose their lives as a result of these accidents in industrial units. The direct and indirect costs of these accidents impose a heavy financial burden on society. Increasing occupational safety and health is one of the most important policies of any country to reduce the damage caused by accidents and occupational diseases to employers and society. How can these staggering costs be avoided? The answer is simple, identify hazards, and follow workplace safety rules. In this article, we are going to introduce the 10 important hazards that people face in their workplaces.

1- Slipping or falling

Falls are one of the most common causes of injury in the workplace. Falls can occur for a variety of reasons in the workplace and even in non-work environments (for example, the causes of falls can be uneven floor surfaces, wet and damp floors, cables left in the workplace, etc). Employers have to pay a lot of money for these accidents every year, while if safety regulations are observed, such accidents in the workplace can be diminished. As you know, the employer is responsible for ensuring the safety of his workers and employees in the workplace.
 
Accidents have always happened throughout history and will happen in the future, but simple steps can make the work environment safer and prevent many accidents. For example, observing such things as implementing the 5S system, cleaning stains and spilled liquids on the workplace floor, placing equipment in its places, improving lighting, preparing work instructions for height, and require workers to wear non-slip safety shoes can prevent many falls.
 

2- Electric current

Any electric wires can harm people, whether they are touched directly by people or indirectly transmitted to an individual through an electrical conductor. Voltages above 50 volts are considered dangerous to humans and should be taken seriously. A broken wire cover of motors and electrical devices due to wear or burn can cause a source of danger in the workplace. Unfortunately, some annual accidents that occur due to exposure to electricity in the workplace are fatal. Electric shock can in many cases cause severe and permanent damage. Most of these electric shocks are caused by defective workplace equipment that can be prevented with a proper precautionary measure. Some of the basics of electrical safety include: maintenance of all electrical installations and equipment at appropriate intervals, isolating people by selecting appropriate personal protective equipment, using protective relays, connecting the metal body of the devices to the ground, and replacing damaged power cables. It should be carried in mind that defective electrical appliances can sometimes lead to fires in the workplace.
 

3- Fire

Businesses that are too weak to maintain workplace regulations are available to the public (for deliberate fires), and businesses that use defective equipment must anticipate the fire. In addition to the damage to buildings, fires can cause damage to people and the reputation of the business (for example, the Tehran Plasco accident, which caused extensive financial and human damage). This is while proper safety measures can prevent such fires from occurring. Installing fire detectors and sensors to reduce detection and extinguishing time can be effective in preventing the spread of the fire. Of course, this equipment needs to be tested periodically and must be connected to an alternative power supply so that it can operate properly in the absence of electricity. It is also necessary to have an emergency response plan in the organization and people are aware of their duties in the case of a fire and proper ways to leave the building.
 
 In order to deal with fire, the presence of appropriate and sufficient numbers of fire extinguishers, in the workplace is very necessary. If people work by the flames, fire-resistant work clothes should be used. Flammable materials must be stored safely, unused electrical equipment must be switched off and unplugged. The preparation of MSDS is essential for people to be aware of the type of chemicals and ways to extinguish it. Fire is an issue that employers and employees have a very important role to play in dealing with.
 

4- Work in confined places

Enclosed spaces can become dangerous places to work. Tanks, silos, pits, trenches, wells, sewers, drains, pipe ducts, and rooms without ventilation or poor air conditioning can increase the risk of death or serious injury. Welding, painting, flame-cutting, use of chemicals in small spaces, gas leakage in closed spaces can create dangerous working conditions. Poor training can harm not only the workers trapped in these spaces but also the people who are trying to save them. Other things that can happen in such places if you are not careful are lack of oxygen, the release of toxic gas, working with liquids and solids that suddenly fill the enclosed space, etc. Residues from combustion can emit gas, smoke, steam, and dust for a long time. Such materials can cause hot working conditions.
A very clear way to reduce the risk of working in confined spaces is to prevent entering those places primarily. Is it really necessary for people to go to limited space and work there? If it is unavoidable, precautions must be taken. Training and preparing appropriate instructions for entering the confined space can be very effective in reducing these accidents.
 

5- Mechanical hazards

The term mechanical hazards here refers to a group of hazards that can cause physical harm to individuals. These risks are one of the most common occupational hazards and often occur in most work environments. Unprotected machines, moving parts of machines, cutting and pressing machines, pinch points, nip points, and crushing hazards are among the sources of these hazards. As you work through your daily job, you are likely to face one of these dangers. Employers must ensure the safety of their employees against such risks. Providing training to workers on how to work properly with equipment and how to observe safety principles can be very helpful.
 
To be continued...

International Labour Organization

Improving working conditions over the years has occupied the minds of many people. The need for an organization to improve the working conditions was pursued by two Welsh and French social reformers, Robert Owen and Daniel Legrand. The first major step in this direction was the establishment of an international conference in 1890 with representatives of 14 countries in Berlin. At this conference, proposals were made for the development of regulations on the minimum age for employment, improvement of working conditions for women and adolescents. In 1898 another conference was held in Brussels. And in 1900, the International Society for the Legal Protection of Workers was established. Finally, after World War I, when the peace conference was held at the Palace of Versailles, International Labor Organization (ILO) established to support workers` rights and create favorable working conditions and adequate facilities for employment and living standards for workers throughout the world. The goal of this organization was to establish social justice, freedom and economic security and to create equal opportunities for all nations, as well as to formulate international rules and regulations, optimize international labor standards and ensure their employment.
The ILO Act was drafted by the Labor Commission at the International Peace Conference between January and April 1919. The commission was composed of representatives from nine countries: Belgium, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, France, Italy, Japan, Poland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The result of this meeting was the creation of a tripartite organization, which was the only organization that set government representatives, employers, and workers in one place. ILO is the eighth chapter of the Versailles Treaty.
At the beginning of its establishment, about 45 countries became members of the International Labor Organization. The first meeting of the International Labor Organization was attended by two representatives of the government and employers and workers from each member state who met on October 29, 1919. The meeting addressed issues related to the first six topics of the International Labor Act on working hours in industry, unemployment, protection of pregnant women, minimum working age, and night work for adolescents in the industry.

Currently, about 180 countries are members of this organization. Iran has been a member of the International Labor Organization since the first year of its formation, and in 1945, for the first time, a full delegation from Iran participated in the International Labor Conference.
The organization`s meetings are held in June each year in Geneva, workers and employers representatives express their views.
In 1944, the organization held meetings in Philadelphia, USA, following which the Philadelphia Declaration was adopted, according to which the International Labor Organization was obliged to pursue the following issues in countries around the world:
• Employment of all people and increase the standard of living
• Employing workers with jobs that fit their capabilities
• Creating the necessary facilities for training workers
• Provide opportunities for progress and ways for all people to be fair, in terms of wages, difficult work, and working conditions
• Creating favorable cooperation between workers and employers
• Support workers` health in all jobs
• Providing welfare facilities for children and mothers
• Development of social insurance for all workers and provision of complete medical treatment
• Provide appropriate food and culture and cultural facilities and healthy recreation
• Creating equal facilities for training workers
• Organization of the International Labor Organization