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How to clean military boots

Keeping your military boots clean means you`ll get more miles out of them, and proper maintenance doesn`t take that long. Clean your military boots every time they start to appear dirty. Don`t worry – it won`t be nearly as often as you need to wash your military socks.
Here`s everything you need to know about cleaning suede military boots, plus other basics of leather boot care.
Military boots are usually made of highly durable materials such as leather, nylon fabric, and polyurethane rubber. Unlike footwear of the past, these modern day materials are intended to provide comfort while keeping things lightweight. These modern materials require minimal and periodic care to keep your boot in top shape so the wearer can stay comfortable, thus performing at their best.
If you use safety shoes we recommend reading the articles "How to Clean Work Boots and Safety Shoes Based on Their Material" and "How to take care of safety shoes" for further reading.

 
how-to-clean-leather-boots

Follow these six steps to clean your military boots:

1. Remove dust and dirt from your boots with a soft-bristled brush. Pay special attention to the crevices, and use gentle, back-and-forth motions.
2. Wipe your boots with a damp cloth to remove any dirt or debris that`s left over after brushing.
3. Apply a thick layer of polish using small, circular motions with a dry, cotton cloth. Let the coat of boot polish dry for 15 minutes.
4. Scrub the boots with the soft-bristled brush or a dry cloth to remove excess polish. Wait an additional 5 minutes before applying more polish.
5. Apply a small amount of polish with a damp cotton cloth. Use circular motions all over your boot and pick up more polish when it starts to wear thin.
6. Repeat the process until the entire boot is covered in fresh polish. You may need six or seven coats to get a good shine.
 

How-to-clean-suede-leather-boots

Follow these six steps to clean your suede military boots:

1. Brush away any clumps of mud or dirt with a towel.
2. Gently rub away scuffs with an eraser.
3. Lightly dampen one of the clean cloths, and run it over the entire boot surface to remove surface dirt and debris.
4. Scrub the suede with a horsehair or similar soft-bristled brush to work out ground-in dirt. Brush the suede in one direction.
5. Dip the damp cloth in white vinegar or a mixture of gentle dish detergent and warm water to remove any lingering stains. Use small, circular motions on the stain to gently remove it.
6. Apply silicone spray to the suede and buff it with a soft, dry cloth.
 
Machine washing military boots is not an option, so hand wash them with a cloth. Place boots in a dry sink, on top of paper towels or an old towel. Add detergent to a wet cloth and gently scrub the inside of your boots.
 
 
 
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Points to be considered when buying military boots

Military boots are tough, sturdy yet fancy-looking versatile shoes primarily worn by armed forces personnel. Military boots should have features that protect the feet well during training or military operations and maximize person`s performance. We know buying an ideal pair of boots is not easy, don`t worry! Here are the common points you should consider when buying Military boots!


how-to-buy-Military-boots

Comfort in rough conditions

We know that looks matter but not at the expense of your comfort. You don`t want to look dashing but end up with sore feet because of discomfort and unwanted pain arising out of the boots. Comfort is one of the main factors that you should not compromise at any cost for army boots or even other types of boot.


Ankle support

Your ankle should be properly supported with a good grip and cushion surrounding your feet. It keeps your feet safe in sudden twisting of the ankle due to unforeseen situations. You would be using these boots in extreme conditions, so ankle support is a must-have when you decide to shop for your favorite pair of boots.


Slip-resistant

Boots should have tight sole grip and must be slip-resistant. It is essential for your safety. Slip resistance is more crucial not just to keep feet safe but for your complete safety. To avoid slip and fall while casual hiking, slip-resistant army boots are a must.

We recommend that you read the article "Types of leather based on skin cut", regarding the quality of materials and familiarity with different types of leather


Long Lasting Durability

Take your time and assess the quality of the brand that you decided to buy. Before making your final decision, check the durability of the boots. Look for customer reviews for better insights. Check the list of features and materials used in the boots before buying them. Good pair of army boots don’t come cheap, and you don`t want your investment to go in vain in just a couple of weeks. Look for multiple brands before finalizing your purchase.


                                                 


Sole & Weight

Make sure the sole does not extend to the back of the heel or the front (near the toe). The sole must have proper thickening and strength. The outsole must be of rubber or polyurethane material to guarantee comfort, ease, and flexibility.


Waterproof Boots

This is the first and foremost thing you should look for while buying a boot. There is a wide range of designs available both online and offline in the market, but make sure those are waterproof ones. Waterproof boots protect your feet in stormy weather and wet conditions easily and also last long. You should pay close attention to this feature if you want your boots to stay with you for a long time. For premium quality army boots, you can go for brands such as Bates waterproof boots.

If you find the above points in the boots, you can ensure they are suitable boots for military and even non-military uses like hiking and mountaineering.
It is very important to pay attention to the above points. Be sure to follow the above recommendations when buying military boots. If you are looking for various, high quality, and guaranteed boots just visit our website at www.ark-safety.com and find your suitable and favorite model and order it online. 
 
 
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History and types of military boots

Soldiers in combat often find themselves trudging through dense forests or arid deserts, or climbing up mountains in weather conditions ranging from steamy hot to icy cold. In such situations the type of military boot they have been issued will play a key role in their individual survival. While this seems logical, it was not fully acknowledged by the American military until World War II (1939–45), when it was recognized that standard-issue leather boots were not suitable for all soldiers in all combat situations.
 

History of Military boots

For centuries, soldiers have worn military boots. Often such boots covered half of the leg and extended to the knee. A solidly built military boot was preferable to a common shoe, yet the importance of proper footwear for all soldiers went unacknowledged. During the War of 1812, for example, boots were issued only to generals and general staff officers, and not to common foot soldiers. Or in the American Civil War (1861–65), Union army artillerymen and cavalrymen (those fighting for the North) were issued boots while infantrymen, the soldiers most likely to spend long amounts of time marching, were issued only shoes.


Military-Boots-History

Eventually, military boots became more than status symbols worn by officers. Military boots were soon worn by all military men. While military boot styles evolved across the decades, they always were standardized. Some were knee-length, while others only reached the ankle; they were laced, made of leather, and either black or dark brown and etc.
Experiences from World War II have shown that inadequate coverage directly leads to increased casualties. During the war to retake the Alotian Islands (1,200 miles from the Alaskan Peninsula) from the Japanese, most civilian casualties were due to inadequate coverage and overexposure to cold weather. The foot of the trench, which resembles frostbite and results from direct exposure to cold weather, has become a common problem among American soldiers. In the final stages of the war, soldiers provided better clothing for the cold weather and replaced the Arctic's insulated shoes with leather boots.

Military-Boots-History

In the decades after World War II, different types of military boots were designed for different terrain as wars have brought American soldiers into the jungles of Vietnam and the deserts of the Middle East. In 1965, quick-drying polymer boots were produced for soldiers on their way to Vietnam. Latter-day military boots feature ripple soles: soles that look like teeth and allow the boot to more firmly grip the terrain. They also include removable inner soles.
The attention the military gave to boot styles brought the footwear to the attention of the public around World War II. Military boots called bluchers became especially popular with young civilian, or non-military, men in the 1940s. Bluchers were heavy-soled, black leather, laced shoes; they looked like thick-soled, clunky oxfords. Bluchers were worn on college campuses across the United States and Europe. By the twenty-first century all types of military boots and shoes were sold on the commercial marketplace and remained favorite styles for young people.

Military-boots-soldier
 

Types of military boots

Military boots are designed to handle any challenge while in training, on duty or in combat Military boots are an integral part of military uniforms and are designed to protect your feet from hazards and also providing extra comfort and stability, so you’re always ready for peak performance.
Military boots are produced for different climatic conditions such as forests, deserts, cold regions, tropical regions, etc. Traditional military boots were often made of hardened and sometimes waterproofed leather, but modern military boots are designed to provide a combination of grip, ankle stability, and foot protection suitable for a rugged environment.

Military-boots-in-winter

Other types of military boots include Tanker boots (to be used in mud environments) and Jumper boots (for parachuting). Whether you are stateside or deployed, you want to be sure that you have a good set of boots on your feet while serving in the military. Keeping your feet supported and comfortable while allowing them to breathe should be your priority when you select your footwear.

Parachute-boots

We offer a wide variety of military boots in different colors and styles, like boots for cold and warm regions, soldiers, army, IRGC, border troops, forestry troops and also water proof and Tank boots. You can visit our products on www.ark-safety.com and choose your favorite products according to your needs.
For further reading, we recommend reading the article "Types of shoe soles and their characteristics".
 
 
 
 
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The difference between antistatic and ESD

There is often confusion between the terms ESD and antistatic, and not just when it comes to safety footwear. While one includes the other, to deduce the same is true in reverse is generally incorrect. Although both terms refer to contact resistance, there are fundamental differences between the two. Confused? Worry not. We are going to shed some light on the matter below.

Safety footwear generally represents the point of connection between the body and the floor. Electrostatic energy and contact resistance are therefore extremely important in this area. However, a distinction must be made between the antistatic properties of shoes and their electrostatic discharge (ESD) capability.
 
The applicable standard for safety footwear, EN ISO 20345, specifies a variety of requirements, including for electrostatic properties. It defines three areas, based on contact resistance: conductive, antistatic and electrically insulating footwear. For safety shoes to be labelled S1, they must fulfil the basic requirements plus the additional requirements for antistatic. The same applies to all subsequent safety classifications, for both industrial and occupational shoes. Shoes are antistatic if the measured contact resistance is in the range between 100 kiloohm (105 ohm) and 1 gigaohm (109 ohm). According to the standard, if contact resistance falls below this value, they are considered to be conductive, while a higher value means they are electrically insulating.

Resistance table

What are the reasons for this?

The EU standard stipulates that antistatic footwear should be worn to prevent electrostatic build-up and ensure it is discharged effectively. This is essential to eliminate the risk of electric shock from electrical equipment or live parts as well as that posed by sparks igniting flammable substances or vapours.
The aim is therefore to protect those wearing safety shoes (and their colleagues) from dangers related to electrostatic build-up.

So that’s antistatic explained. What does ESD stand for?

Electrostatic build-up and personal safety are not the only important considerations in industry, with controlled discharge also needed to protect components and equipment. Here, another standard comes into play that deals with electrostatic discharge (ESD): EN 61340-5-1 Protection of electronic devices from electrostatic phenomena. The ESD area defined in this standard represents a delimitation of the antistatic range indicated in safety footwear standard EN ISO 20345. 
The lower threshold of contact resistance is at 100 kiloohm and the upper threshold is at 35 megaohm (3.5 x 107 ohm). This therefore means that ESD-compliant shoes are always antistatic at the same time, but not all antistatic shoes are ESD compliant. For example, if contact resistance is measured as 100 megaohm, the shoes are antistatic but do not meet the ESD requirements. However, if the shoe contact resistance is just 1 megaohm, then the footwear is both antistatic and ESD capable.
 

As ESD relates to meeting the requirements for the product protection standard, the labelling must be separate from the CE marking. Consequently, safety footwear which complies with the standard features an additional yellow ESD symbol. If the shoes do not feature the special ESD symbol but are labelled S1, they are generally antistatic.

ESD sign


Measurement methods and factors influencing results

Testing the antistatic properties of shoes for certification involves a test method under laboratory conditions. Before undergoing the test procedure, the shoe must first be conditioned over a defined length of time (in both dry and moisture-regulated atmospheres). The shoe is then filled with a total mass of 4 kg of stainless steel balls, which are connected to the contact resistance measurement device via a copper cable. 
The shoe is placed on a copper plate as the external electrode. The test voltage of 100 V DC is applied between the copper plate and the steel balls for one minute while recording the contact resistance of the footwear sample. This must exceed 100 kiloohm, but be less than or equal to 1 gigaohm.
Testing the ESD capability of shoes is slightly more difficult because there are a variety of different measurement procedures for the two standards. For EN 61340-5-1, the contact resistance value is measured for the person-shoe-ground system. This involves an employee standing on a conductive shoe testing electrode while wearing the safety footwear. The resistance is measured when they place their hand on a metal plate. If the measured contact resistance is less than 35 megaohm, the shoes are ESD capable.
The second standard, EN 61340-4-3, determines the contact resistance in a laboratory process. The test object is preconditioned at a predefined temperature and air humidity in a conditioning chamber. The standard distinguishes between three different climate classes as shown in the table below:
h = duration in hours, °C = temperature, % RH = relative humidity
Measurement is carried out once the test object has been conditioned. The shoe is placed on a stainless steel plate as the first electrode and a counter electrode is placed inside the shoe on the insole. Weight of 12.5 kg (+/- 2.5 kg) is then applied. A device measures the contact resistance between the two electrodes. It must be less than 100 megaohm for ESD certification to be granted for the respective climate class.

What factors can influence contact resistance for shoes?

It can sometimes be the case that footwear which has been labelled as ESD capable by the manufacturer then fails the control test carried out by the customer. However, this does not necessarily mean that the shoe is not ESD capable, as there may be a variety of reasons and influences that have affected the result. For example, the temperature of the shoe can impact the discharge capacity. Safety shoes which are left in the car overnight in winter would cool down so considerably that the contact resistance would be higher as a result. Similarly, the duration of wear can be an influencing factor, raising the moisture levels inside the shoes. Moisture generally raises discharge capacity. Other factors include alterations to the outsole or insole and whether contact areas are in any way dirty.
 

For further study please refer to "Special Signs of Safety shoes" , "Types of electrical insulation safety shoes" and "Openka top rub" articles.


When Should Safety Footwear Be Replaced

Imagine getting ready for work each day, putting on your safety shoes or work boots, and not realizing that your feet aren’t being protected. This is what happens when you are unaware of when to replace your safety footwear. Not to worry, our safety footwear experts at “Ark safety industries” are here to share the top signs to look for so you can always be protected on the job.


Comfort Health & Safety

 Injury prevention Safety Footwear

Safety footwear is designed to protect workers’ feet from injury but can only do this when safety shoe or work boots are in good condition. This might seem obvious but is often forgotten in our busy, day-to-day work.
Although there are no specific dates or times that safety footwear should be replaced, as this depends on the nature of your work, there are 3 factors to consider:

1- Regular wear and tear
2- Damage
3- Usage

Here’s a quick look at each:


Regular Wear & Tear

Are there any visible signs of damage? This can include holes, tearing, or rips.
Can you see the protective toe cap showing through the shoe or boot material?
Are the bottom treads wearing down and becoming smooth?
Are any of the inner protective guards showing? Or are seams detaching?
Are you sliding or slipping when you walk?
In general, do they feel less supportive than they did earlier?
If the answer is YES to any of the above then it’s time to look at replacing your safety footwear.
 

Damage

When it comes to safety footwear, you must always remember how much your shoes have already gone through. For example, has something been dropped on the protective toe of your safety footwear recently? If so, the protective integrity can be damaged. It is imperative to remember that there doesn’t have to be a visible dent in the toe for protection to be compromised. Often, the impact of something falling on the toe can dislodge the toe cap without it being visible. If your safety footwear has undergone any workplace incident they should be inspected closely and you should consider replacing them.

Usage

Workers have different job demands and work conditions and spend different amounts of time on their feet which leads to varying levels of safety shoe wear and tear. If you work long hours in extreme work conditions you may need to replace your safety footwear more frequently than someone who works indoors in dry conditions or someone who only wears their safety shoes or work boots part-time. Either way, all workers should perform an inspection of their safety footwear. And while most workers do not need to replace their safety footwear every 6 months, it is always a good idea to take a good look at them after a minimum of 6 months’ use. This will give you a good indication of the level of wear and tear.

Kara Safety Shoe

At “Ark safety industries”, we are committed to helping find the best safety footwear for workers. Feel free to contact us with any questions you may have or contact our business solutions team if you’re looking for a safety footwear program for your company. For the safety of our customers and staff, we are strictly adhering to the guidelines necessary to keep you safe. We’re all in this together!

Please also visit "How to take care of safety shoes" and "How to Clean Work Boots and Safety Shoes Based on Their Material" articles for more information about caring and changing safety sheos. 
 
 
Just take the first step...

3 Tips for Finding the Best Safety Footwear for Standing on Concrete

If you experience sore feet, lower back pain, or leg strain from standing on hard concrete floors at work all day, you are not alone! While walking distributes your weight, standing doesn’t, which can lead to discomfort, knee pain and swelling in the legs and feet. But whether you are standing or walking, hard concrete floors can be punishing on your body when working for extended periods. Over time, workers may suffer from injuries and/or chronic pain. Whether you are working on an assembly line at a factory, in a warehouse or in construction, making an effort to take good care of your feet can go a long way. Wearing proper safety shoes and work boots that support your feet will make a big difference.

Safety shoe for concrete surface

3 Important Features in Safety Footwear

Fit: Finding quality footwear that is the correct size and fit and offers the needed support for your foot is the most crucial step when deciding what type of safety shoes you will purchase no matter what surface you work on.
Shock-absorbing footbeds: Protect the heel and ball of your foot from the day-to-day impact of hard surfaces with safety footwear that features good shock absorption in the footbed. This is the base layer that will protect your feet.
Cushioned midsoles: Midsoles are the area of footwear between the sole of the shoe and the bottom of the footbed. They provide an important barrier between the hard concrete surface and your feet. The amount of cushioning you will need depends on your level of activity. Standing is a bigger strain so more stationary work requires more cushioning; more active workers require lighter cushioning that does not weigh the foot down. The analogy is to walking on sand – although comfortable, it’s a lot more work.

And for all workers we recommend insoles. Insoles provide arch support that is important in helping reduce strain, pain and potential long-term musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). And, they are also another great shock absorber. Unlike anti-fatigue flooring matting, insoles provide individual foot support and travel with the worker wherever they go.

Concrete surface


The Recommendations of our safety experts

Shoes for construction operations are different depending on the conditions of the work environment. Construction work can consist of welding, thermal insulation, electrical work, cement and plaster work and even building installations and etc. Naturally, the shoes used in these environments will not be the same, for example, electrical insulation shoes require a set of standards and requirements that will be different from welding shoes, or in cases where anti-slip and frustration shoes are needed, we recommend TPU outsole. When buying, it is recommended that you share your work environment tips and requirements with our experts. They will try to offer you the best and most suitable shoes.

Please read our artcile about Workplace safety tips for more safety at work.




JUST TAKE THE FIRST STEP.....



Sources:
Mister safety
Ark Safety Group


Openka top rub

In blacksmithing, welding and turning workshops, you often come across to sparks and welding lava that cause burns to your feet, soles and even your shoelaces.
Choosing the right welding shoes is one of the ways to protect your feet, but unfortunately it is usually chosen unprofessionally and unprincipled, which both reduces the life of the product and increases consumer dissatisfaction with safety shoes.
Welding safety shoes have features that other safety shoes do not have.

Openka Welding shoe

1 - Shoe material

Shoes made of synthetic leather burn immediately and destroyed by sparks, which reduces the useful life of safety shoes. Due to the fact that the safety shoes introduced are all cow leather, they are resistant to welding and turning projectiles.

2- Shoe upper

In welding safety shoes, it is very important that the sole of the shoe is closed. The welding shoe should completely cover the foot up to the ankle, and this cover should have a good resistance against penetration of objects and lava. Also in welding safety shoes, wearing and removing shoes should be done easily.

3- Shoe soles

The sole of welding shoes is better to be made of rubber. Rubber has good resistance to melting and penetration of welding projectiles and increases the life of the shoe. Due to the low resistance of PU to ambient heat, the use of PU outsole is not recommended.

Welding Shoe
In this regard, the special safety shoes for welding that we can introduce to you are the Openka Top-Rubber (rubber) safety shoes. Which completely covers the foot and is resistant to the penetration of foreign objects. The heat-resistant outsole is made of rubber and has a PU top on the front of the shoe sole.


Source: Ark Safety Company

Workplace safety tips

Research and studies on major accidents such as Chernobyl and Bhopal and small incidents that endanger the health and lives of millions of people every day have shown that despite the use of all engineering factors and strict protection and safety and health of the workplace There is also the potential for large and small accidents in high-risk industries and environments.
Occupational safety and health (HSE) is one of the most important issues that every person at any level in the work and life environment should pay attention to and neglecting it will sometimes cause irreparable damage and loss.
The point that should never be forgotten is that danger is always lurking. Therefore, we must always think about reducing the damage caused by potential hazards. This means that even if we take all necessary precautions and observe the safety and health of the workplace, we may still be in danger from issues that are out of our minds or due to the mistakes and negligence of others.
Now, if we want to protect ourselves and others from the bites of these dangers or to minimize their effects, we must make arrangements.


11  tips for safety and health at work

Activities related to occupational safety and health processes, including factories, workshops, and manufacturing centers, face specific challenges such as hazardous materials, combustible dust, and other flammable materials. Experts believe that all workplace safety programs should include health and safety activities in their programs, and that each employee should play a role. On the other hand, safety and health activities in the workplace require managerial commitment so that employees realize its importance. Here are 11 tips for doing these activities effectively.

1. Avoid slipping and falling

slipping and falling

Preventing slips and falls is one of the safety and health activities at work. According to the Center for Labor Statistics in 2013, falls and slips were the second leading cause of non-fatal workplace injuries or illnesses.
According to US Standards of Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA) Levels (1910.22 (a)), all workplaces must be kept clean, tidy and completely hygienic. This law includes passages, warehouses and service rooms. The floor should be dry and clean. Where wetting processes take place, there must be drainage.

2. Eliminate fire hazards

fire hazards
Employees have a duty to prevent the accumulation of unnecessary flammable materials. According to the OSHA Hazardous Materials Standard (1910.160), flammable waste must be collected in special containers and disposed of daily.

3. Control the amount of dust

Control the amount of dust
According to the National Fire Protection Association, the accumulation of more than 32.1 gallons of dust per inch or 0.8 mm, which covers at least 5% of the room surface, can lead to a severe explosion. This accumulation of dust is the thickness of a coin or paper clip.
According to Gray, an industrial health professional should test the work environment for potential hazards associated with air quality and dust.
NFPA 654, which is a standard for fire and explosion prevention, emphasizes the identification of hazardous areas, dust control, and safety and health activities. This standard states that dust suction is a desirable method of cleaning. T-shirting and rinsing can also be other options. The use of air pumps is also permitted for unsafe or inaccessible surfaces.
 

4. Prevent materials from flowing into the workplace

Prevent materials from flowing into the workplace
Workplace soles, which can be cloth or sticky, must be clean and well maintained. According to Gray, this prevents the release of hazardous substances to other places. Examine all footrests to ensure that hazardous materials are not transported through them.
 

5. Avoid spilling objects

Avoid spilling objects
Preventing dumping of objects is one of the activities related to occupational safety and health that must be considered.

6. Arrange the clutter

Arrange the clutter
From a theoretical point of view, a cluttered work environment can lead to ergonomic problems and injuries because employees have less room to move. "When something is messed up, the chances of cuts and injuries increase," he says. In this case, you will not have enough space to properly set up your workstation and move around in the environment. "In this situation, employees have to twist themselves at any moment to cross somewhere."
 

7. Store materials properly

Store materials properly

According to the OSHA (1926.250) Material Handling, Warehousing, Use, and Disposal Standard, materials that carry a risk of explosion, fire, or poison release should not be stored in storage areas.
According to Erico, the mistake some employees make is to place storage ladders or other items in electrical cabinets, which, in addition to violating OSHA rules, clogs the electrical panel and can cause a fire.

8. Use and inspect personal safety tools and equipment

Use and inspect personal safety tools and equipment
According to Erico, most employee compensation cases are for people who have not used personal safety equipment while cleaning and have suffered injuries. "When cleaning the workplace, use personal safety equipment such as shoes and goggles," says Gary. "Decide on the type of safety clothing you should wear, given the possible risks and dangers."

9. Determine the frequency of repetition of safety and health activities

Determine the frequency of repetition of safety and health activities
All employees should participate in safety and health activities, especially workplace sorting, report safety hazards, and clean up spills and spills. "Every worker has to play a role in these activities and report any problems," says Arnhols.
Before the end of the shift, employees should inspect and clean their work environment and dispose of unusable materials. This can reduce the time it takes to clean up next time.
The amount of particulate matter or contaminants produced in the workplace can determine the frequency of repetition of safety and health activities. According to Norton, a company should include a combination of general and thorough cleaning and light and frequent cleaning, including scrubbing and cleaning.

10. Prepare codified rules

Prepare codified rules
Laws should be made regarding occupational safety and health activities.
Establish effective rules for occupational safety and health. Experts agree on the need for safety and health policies. According to Norton, in this way, such activities take a formal and defined form. Codified programs can specify which detergent, tool, or method should be used.
Norton adds: "In our research we have seen many gaps in the effectiveness of floor cleaning. The floor is often ignored. "That`s why we think it`s important to write part of the program and define a training course for employees to get to know and follow the right practices."

11. Think long term

Think long term
Long-term thinking is essential to the proper performance of occupational safety and health activities
Safety and health activities are not one-time measures and should be continued with monitoring and evaluation. Keep records and records, have an inspection schedule, report potential hazards, and remind staff of the need to continue safety and health activities. Set goals and expectations and make your assessments based on those goals.

Safety Definition

Safety is a word that is highly regarded in almost everything today. There are several definitions of the word safety, including protection against danger, and this danger can have different meanings depending on the situation, such as: safety against falls, safety against accidents, safety against fire and etc. . Today the word safety has become one of the key words of economic affairs.
Safety is the degree to which one is away from danger. The scientific definition of safety states that a hazard is a condition that has the potential to harm personnel, equipment, and buildings, and to destroy materials or reduce performance in the performance of a predetermined task. There is no absolute and absolute safety and it will never be achieved in practice. That is why it is said that safety is a relative protection against dangers.
Safety can be defined as the organizational guarantee that an acceptable level of safety will be provided for a particular process or for the duration of the project life cycle.



safety culture

Definition of safety culture

Safety culture is the product of values, attitudes, perceptions, competencies and behavioral patterns of employees and individuals, which determines the degree of compliance of employees with the style and method of managing the safety and health of the organization. There are three perspectives on safety culture today:
1 - Hardware view: Until a few decades ago, scientists believed that in order to control losses and reduce accident statistics, more barriers and protections should be built for devices or safer tools and machines, but still the number of industrial accidents is low. Did not come!
2 - Software perspective: In this perspective, accident control, waste reduction, better training, preparation of procedures, policies, planning, were considered, but still did not have a significant effect on reducing accident statistics.
3 - Biological perspective: In this view, human beings as the main and influential factor on accidents were considered by researchers. Researchers said that researchers worked on safety-process safety systems and new safety management to reduce the likelihood and severity of accidents. Given that humans are psychologically and behaviorally complex, there are still many ambiguities that make it difficult to judge the effectiveness of this method.


History of safety

History of safety in the world

One of the first evidences of work hazard control dates back to ancient Rome in the second century BC. At that time, miners used a cloth to cover their mouths to prevent dust from being inhaled. In this regard, several doctors and scientists took the field and took steps to improve the health of the workforce.
In 1473, Elnbug published the first health journal on occupational diseases and injuries among miners. He also wrote about the toxicity of carbon monoxide, mercury, lead, and nitric acid.
After the Industrial Revolution (in the second half of the eighteenth century), industry, technology and technology grew significantly, but despite the improvement of living conditions, increased production and easier work, which was due to scientific and technical progress, problems and difficulties Many things were created for human beings and caused contemporary human beings to be exposed to numerous dangers and threats, including diseases and accidents caused by work and premature aging that are caused by unfavorable conditions.
 
the principles of safety in the workplace

What are the principles of safety in the workplace?

Research shows that every year, more than one million people in the world die as a result of work-related accidents, and a large number suffer serious injuries.
This situation is more prevalent in developing countries. Statistics show that in recent decades, work-related accidents are the third leading cause of death in the world due to the dangers of the workplace and non-compliance. Safety issues.
Among the most common causes of death due to work accidents are falls from heights, electric shocks, burns and hard body collisions that have occurred due to non-observance of safety tips and lack of use of safety equipment.

What is workplace health?

Occupational health today is defined as:

The science and art of preventing adverse effects on work style, work environment and work ethic that endanger the health of the employee and cause occupational diseases, occupational poisoning and work-related accidents.
The Safety Joint Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO), established in Geneva in 1953, outlined the goals of occupational health as follows:
A) Providing, maintaining and promoting the level of physical, mental and social health of employees in any profession.
B) Prevention of diseases and accidents at work.
C) selecting a worker or employee for the environment and job that he is physically and mentally capable of doing, or briefly adapting the work to a human being and, if that is not possible, adapting the human being to the work.
 

Global statistics of non-observance of occupational safety and health

Research and studies on major accidents such as Chernobyl and Bhopal and small incidents that endanger the health and lives of millions of people every day have shown that despite the use of all engineering factors and strict protection and safety and health of the workplace There is also the potential for large and small accidents in high-risk industries and environments.
Occupational safety and health (HSE) is one of the most important issues that every person at any level in the work and life environment should pay attention to and neglecting it will sometimes cause irreparable damage and loss.
The point that should never be forgotten is that danger is always lurking. Therefore, we must always think about reducing the damage caused by potential hazards. This means that even if we take all necessary precautions and observe the safety and health of the workplace, we may still be in danger from issues that are out of our minds or due to the mistakes and negligence of others.
Now, if we want to protect ourselves and others from the bites of these dangers or to minimize their effects, we must make arrangements. The first issue that we must pay attention to in occupational safety and health is correct and logical thinking and the right approach in preventing danger.

Job insecurity in the workplace

Whenever you come across something that you feel might be causing insecurity, be sure to report it to the manager or supervisor of that department. One of the most important safety tips in the workplace is to identify unsafe factors in your job.

These include:

Rupture of the floor covering

Loose shelves

Stairs are not strong

Any defective device

Broken chairs or tables

Broken or loose tiles

Unprotected power cords at commuting

Benefits of following safety tips in the workplace

Observing safety issues can save companies from paying heavy compensations and also provide a safe and healthy environment to increase employee vitality. Therefore, we conclude that observing safety tips in the workplace is the most important and main action that must be done before starting work.

Foot Safety


Foot safety

Safety shoes are a wide range of protective shoes with different shapes, materials and designs, whose task is to protect the foot against various types of chemical, physical, biological and mechanical hazards. Injuries and injuries to the foot area one It is one of the most common occupational accidents in most industrial environments.
Falling heavy objects on the foot, especially the toe area, can lead to severe injuries.
Foot burns from contact with molten metals, sparks, and corrosive chemicals are common in the iron and steel industries.
Cuts, scratches and punctures of the legs are also a common occurrence in many workplaces.
Dermatitis or eczema can be caused by contact with a wide range of substances such as acids, bases and many other substances.
Frostbite and slipping are other types of hazards that threaten workers in some industries.

Kara Safety Boots

Steel toe shoes

Because the toes are more vulnerable between different parts of the foot than other parts, in some industrial environments such as mining, metalworking and firefighting operations, steel toe shoes are used. The protective steel should be as thin as possible and in accordance with the standard.
 
In this article, we talked to you about safety, safety history, safety and environmental health and foot safety. There is a need for safety in all aspects of the work and life environment. By observing the principles of safety and environmental health, many costs caused by injuries in many industries and jobs can be avoided. We hope this article has been helpful to you and has been able to play a small role in promoting occupational safety and health.

Sources:
Wikipedia , kargosha ChetorDanial SafetyImen Traffic

Fire proof safety shoes

You must have heard the famous phrase "prevention is better than cure". Today is the age of technology and the development of industry, and it has affected human activities in all its dimensions. Each activity has its own dangers, so wisdom dictates that man protect himself from the dangers and injuries caused by accidents. Therefore, human beings have become able to protect themselves to a great extent from dangers and injuries by producing safety tools and equipment.

Therefore, creating a safe work environment is one of the main tasks of managers and employers in any part of organizations. In most cases, people are not allowed to work without safety equipment. It is important for people to know what equipment they should use to protect themselves in the workplace, what equipment for their job has been produced for this purpose, and with what characteristics these equipment should be provided.

Openka welding boots with leather upper

Foot safety

The foot, as one of the most important part of human body that enables him to move, is vulnerable to environmental hazards such as hard surfaces, cold and heat. Since the feet support the human body and literally carry heavy weights daily, it is important to have the right shoes to protect the feet at all times, especially at work. Ark safety shoes, which are designed to protect the feet with good fit, in addition to foot comfort, relieve the body`s musculoskeletal system from stress and fatigue and prevent work accidents and long-term injuries.


Openka welding boots with leather upper


Protecting feet from the heat

Dangerous occupations that can threaten one`s health and safety include occupations related to the foundry and metallurgy industries, petrochemical oil and gas industries, welding and forging, electrical industries, machine building, road and construction jobs, and all Workplaces where it is possible to spill molten material, jump sparks on the feet and the presence of very high temperature material. In this type of jobs, the presence of flammable and hot materials is one of the main and serious dangers that the need for thermal insulation safety equipment is very necessary. In such jobs, the use of fireproof safety shoes to protect the feet is highly recommended.

Openka welding boots with leather upper



Fireproof safety shoes

 

Fireproof safety shoes can withstand temperatures up to 150 ° C; And they don’t  transfer heat into the shoes. Whereas the use of safety shoes is required by HSE rules and standards; For this reason, fireproof safety shoes should be used in environments such as foundry and metallurgy industries, petrochemical oil and gas industries, welding and forging, electrical industries, machine building, road and construction jobs and all work environments where there are molten materials, jumping spark on the foot and substances with very high temperatures. These safety devices also protect the feet from chemicals, petroleum solvents and oils. This footwear has two layers of outsole; And they are made of special leather that do not transfer heat inside. This shoe, like other safety shoes, has a metal layer on the front that protects the foot from heavy impact.


Material of fireproof safety shoes

Fire safety shoes have two layers of soles and are made of a special leather that do not transfer heat inside. Fireproof shoes are very resistant to petroleum and oil solvents and are thermal insulation.



The last word

Help your workers and increase the security of your workplace by buying fireproof safety shoes. A good fireproof safety shoe can guarantee the health and safety of people working in heat-related environments. Ark Safety Industries, by observing all the principles and standards of production of fireproof safety shoes, is one of the leading manufacturers in the field of production of safety shoes.
Among the products of Ark Safety Industries in relation to fireproof safety shoes, we can mention Openka welding boots with leather upper .
 
 
 

Components of Rima safety shoes

Different parts are used to produce each shoe. In this article, we describe the components and parts used in Rima safety shoes:
Piece 1 is Rima`s safety shoe upper made of cow leather with a thickness of 2 mm. The thickness and quality of this piece is very important in safety shoes, because the work shoes are used in the work environment and there is a possibility of equipment falling at any moment. If the thickness and quality of this piece is small, the sole of the safety shoe will be lost in the shortest time.
Piece 2 is the heel of the shoe as the side pillars. Thickness is also very important in this part.


Piece 3, the back of the shoe, the main role of this part is to keep the appearance of the back of the shoe. With the help of piece 10, it holds the back of the shoe firmly and prevents the shoe from deforming when wearing and taking off the shoe.
Piece 4 is woven shoes that are fastened and tied (piece 19) in this part is mounted and assembled.
Piece 5 is a shoe rack, which is assembled on the top of the back and should be soft, and under it, piece 6, called the compressed cloud, is assembled and keeps the leg comfortable.
Piece 7, shoe lining, which is inside the shoe and absorbs foot perspiration. The denser the texture of this piece, the higher the quality of the product.
Piece 8, lining of Nir shoes, has the role of shoe lining. At the same time softness should be thick and dense. The reason for the perforation of the socks is that the surface lining is not soft, which causes the socks to wear.
Piece 9, Piece 11 and Piece 13 are the shoe tab parts.
Piece 12 is glued under the surface to secure the surface.



Pieces number 14 are designed for beautiful and sturdy heel work.
Piece 15, the rubber, is a claw that is installed to prevent the foot from biting.
Piece 16, steel claw, is a safety shoe.
Piece 17 is a 2 mm strobe insole, which is sewn onto the sole of the shoe after sewing.
Piece 18 is the name of the manufacturer, the date of production and the license number of the shoe.



Piece 20 is the medical insole of the safety shoe.
Piece 21 is the sole of the shoe.
And finally, pieces 22 are shoelaces.
 

Signing cooperation agreement between Ark Safety Industry and Sahand University of Technology of Tabriz

With the increasing development of industry and the increasing need for science to advance technology, the relationship between industry and academia has become an irreplaceable thing in the world. The first issue in academic innovation is its commercialization with the help of industrial units. In addition, there are always problems in production and industrial complexes that can be prevented from harming with the help of the university and can even become a valuable opportunity for the development of production units.

Ark Safety Industries Company, considering the potentials and interest of the managers and specialists of this group in product development and technology promotion, has considered the relationship between industry and university as an opportunity and has always been a priority. Fortunately, the proximity of this industrial unit to Sahand University of Technology of Tabriz, which is one of the proudest scientific-research complexes in the country and is considered as a scientific hub in the field of chemical and polymer engineering at the national level. It was decided to sign an agreement of cooperation between Sahand University of Technology and Ark Safety Industries in order to expand consensus and joint scientific-research and educational cooperation and to upgrade capabilities as well as strengthen and establish a systematic relationship.



The purpose of preparing and implementing this agreement is to expand cooperation between the university and the company in scientific-research and educational fields and development projects, especially in the field of production of industrial, safety, military shoes and completing the value chain, taking into account all facilities and authorities. The parties, including technical, production, human and information, experience and expertise are in accordance with the following areas of cooperation:

 
1- Forming joint specialized committees between university and company experts to exchange views, review and initial evaluation of problems in production, research and development, quality control and technical and engineering units of the company and the participation of Sahand University of Technology as the company`s research arm.
2- Reflecting the research priorities and technological needs of the parties to each other
3- Carrying out research and technology studies in the field of developing technical knowledge and transferring the technologies required by the company
4- Cooperating in order to hold joint meetings or relevant specialized conferences and workshops
5- Participating in company development projects
6- Holding short-term training courses in order to enhance the scientific ability of the company`s experts and researchers, as well as university professors and students.
7- Benefiting the parties from each other`s facilities such as intellectual, experimental, research, laboratory, workshop and library capabilities.
8- Providing the possibility of visiting laboratories and scientific-research units to create areas of joint cooperation
9- Cooperation and support in holding conferences with the permission and agreement of the parties

Types of electrical insulation safety shoes

Safety accessories and clothing, especially safety shoes are among the most important parameters that must be considered. Today, the importance of safety shoes has grown to the point that all managers are obliged to use safety shoes for their workers in jobs where there are various accidents and risks and minimize the potential risk and danger at work.
Depending on the type of job, space, work environment and potential hazards at work, various types of safety shoes have been produced, all of which are produced according to specified standards. Undoubtedly, if a shoe is supposed to help workers in the role of safety shoes, it must be created with special technologies to show extraordinary resistance against all possible dangers and accidents, and to reduce irreparable accidents to occur to a minimum.

Nova Safety Boots

 

Among the hazards in the workplace that require safety shoes are the following:
Throwing or falling dangerous or heavy objects or objects to the foot from any side
Dealing with liquids or hot or molten particles and the possibility of spilling it on the feet
Working with electricity and the possibility of electric shock or electric shock
Work in flammable or explosive environments
Work in very cold, hot or underwater environments
Forest or rock work environments, rough surfaces and so on
 
By knowing the exact shoes that have the appropriate standards for your job and work, you can choose and buy the best shoes.
 
To choose the right shoes for your job, read the article Safety shoes suitable for different jobs and work environments.
 
In this article, we will discuss the features and standards of safety shoes suitable for jobs related to electricity.

Pro Safety Boots



Classification of electrical insulation safety shoes

There are three general categories of electrical insulating safety shoes, all of which have very different purposes.

Non-conductive safety shoes

In the category of informal shoes and often classified with the rating "EH". This safety standard is designed to provide a secondary source of protection in the event of exposure to live electrical circuits to reduce the potential for electric shock. EH standard safety shoes can use steel or composite armor. The common misconception is that the metal in a safety shoe is unsuitable for electrical environments, the fact is that the metal is conducted when in contact with another metal. Due to the presence of non-conductive materials (mostly leather, rubber, insulation, etc.), the metal in these shoes is covered and therefore can be worn in environments where there are live circuits. It is also important to choose a safety shoe with a rubber sole that prevents the circuit from completing during an accident. Rubber blinds also have a slip, water and abrasion resistant cover to protect the worker from falling objects. Helps at work.

Rino Safety Boots
 


Anti-static safety shoes

Safety shoes with this classification are designed for workers in electrically sensitive environments. Anti-static shoes help to eliminate the accumulation of static electricity from the body and at the same time provide a reasonable level of resistance to electrical hazards from living circuits. These boots or shoes are usually labeled ESD or SD.


Pro composite safety shoes

Conductive safety shoes

Helps protect the cover in an environment where the accumulation of static electricity in the body can be dangerous. These workers often handle explosives or escape.
Guided safety shoes are made of materials and cement that have no electrical resistance. You may come across the term "static-false" when you buy safety shoes. False static only does this by reducing the amount of static electricity accumulated by walking, moving, and so on. Static electric boots separate the formation of the current circuit from the body to the ground and are used to reduce the possibility of ignition caused by static electric sparks. Remember that these boots do not provide any protection against electrical equipment.


Pro composite safety boots

Abbreviations in safety shoes:

1- In the construction of under shoes, a polymer called polyurethane is used, which is called RU for short.
2- The abbreviation RR indicates the resistance of safety shoes against piercing
3- Safety shoes that are resistant to electric current are called CP for short.
4- Safety shoes that are conductive against electric current are called ED for short.
 
For complete information on acronyms in safety shoes, read the article Special Signs of Safety shoes .

Rima Electrical Insulation Shoes

The last word

Help your workers and increase the security of your work environment by buying electrical insulation safety shoes. A good electrical insulation safety shoe can guarantee the health and safety of people working in electricity-related environments.
Among the products of Ark Safety Industries in relation to electrical insulation shoes, we can mention Rino, Rima, Nova and Composite safety shoes.



Translated By ARK Safety company
Sources: Alvand PoshEng MartWikipedia
 

Symptoms and Definitive Treatment of Calcaneal Spur

Patients with calcaneal spur generally suffer from sharp, stabbing pain that usually occurs in the morning when they take their first steps and start walking. Calcaneal spur pain decreases with warming but recurs after standing for a long time or changing position from sitting to standing. Calcaneal spurs are most common among runners and overweight people, and wearing shoes that do not support the foot enough also increases the risk of calcaneal spurs.
 

What is a calcaneal spur?

A calcaneal spur is a bony appendage that develops in the heel bone. The human ankle is made up of seven bones, the largest of which is the heel bone. Occasionally there is a tingling sensation in the bone that becomes painful and can interfere with walking.

The most important cause of heel pain is calcaneal spurs; Interestingly, this pain is not caused by a thorn, it is the pain that causes the calcaneal spur. These spurs are caused by inflammation of the plantar fascia. The plantar fascia is a wide band that runs from the heel to the toes.
If the fascia becomes inflamed and this inflammation persists, it can cause calcium to build up at the junction of the fascia with the heel. This abnormal calcium deposit is in the form of a small thorn-like appendage called a calcaneal spur. Calcaneal spurs are not painful in themselves, but the pain is caused by stretching of the fascia.
 

Causes and factors of calcaneal spurs

As we have said, the cause of this disease is pressure or damage to the heel tissue, which leads to inflammation of the plantar fascia and ossification of the plantar fascia. Several factors can cause this problem:
* Overweight (calcaneal spurs are more common in obese people). Sudden weight gain during pregnancy
- Flat feet.
* Biomechanical problems (abnormalities that lead to abnormal motion).
 Inflammation of the soles of the feet for any reason.
- Wearing inappropriate shoes (too high heel of shoes, tight shoes, shoes without heels or flat)
- Running (walking is less harmful than running).
- Stand for a long time.
- Tea consumption is effective both in causing primary inflammation of the plantar fascia and in the secondary deposition of calcium and the formation of calcaneal spurs.
 

Signs and complications of calcaneal spurs

Calcaneal spurs usually present with pain. The pain in the heel is vague, but sometimes it is felt as a sharp pain, and the person expresses that there is something like a needle in the heel that causes pain due to pressures such as walking. The place of pain is in the center of the heel or the inner edge; The severity of calcaneal spurs is greater in the early morning, after waking up and after resting, and decreases with walking.
This pain is very severe in the first step after a long rest. Walking on hard and uneven surfaces and carrying heavy objects can increase pain. Sometimes, pain develops spontaneously, which also remains at the break. In some cases where the disease is not yet very advanced, the person may be completely asymptomatic and the disease may be diagnosed by chance on a plain radiograph.
 

Treatment of calcaneal spurs

The affected person, due to pain when walking, tries not to put too much pressure on the affected leg; As a result, he limps, and if left untreated, causes discomfort in the lower back and knees. Therefore, heel spurs must be treated. The treatment principles for heel spurs are simple and include the following:
Rest: The first step in treating heel spurs is rest. In many cases, rest alone has eliminated even severe pain. The patient should also refrain from standing for long periods.
Weight loss: It is effective in treating heel spurs.
- Using heel pads: You can get these pads from pharmacies and use them permanently in your shoes. The pad will reduce pressure on the heel and relieve foot pain.
- Doing exercises that are effective in treating heel spurs:
A. Plantar fascia stretch: Place a wide band on the sole of the foot and under the toes and pull the two ends of the foot in the hand so that the toes are close together. Hold this position for thirty seconds. Repeat this seven or eight times a day.
 
 
Just take the first step ...
 

In what places should we use hearing protectors

Noise is one of the factors that affect the hearing system. Hearing protectors should be used to guard ears against this physical factor. Safety earphones should be used when exposed to noises of 85 decibels or more for 8 hours, annoying noises, or sounds such as short bursts.
 

Types of hearing protectors

Earmuffs, which are placed on the eardrum and protect the ear structure without direct contact with it.
Earplugs are those that are placed inside the external ear canal, blocking it and partially blocking the air passage.
 

Comparison of earmuff and earplug

The earmuff has fewer health problems because it is not connected to the inside of the ear. In contrast, the shared use of earplugs between people increases the possibility of transmitting microbial and fungal infections from one to another, while this is not the case with earmuffs. The earplug increases the possibility of transmitting environmental contaminants into the user`s ear and generally causes itching. The earplug is lighter and, more importantly, cheaper than the earmuff. In general, according to the mentioned points, the use of earmuff is more recommended in terms of its many positive features.
There is also a type of phone that is made of silicon and is made for each person separately, which covers the inside of the ear. This type of protector is called a stereo phone. If the volume is more than 111 dB, you should use both earmuff and earplug.
 
It is recommended that people exposed to noise use hearing protectors that absorb noise at frequencies between 511 and 4111 Hz. For other frequencies, they shouldn`t block the voice so that workers can easily hear the conversations of their colleagues and officials, while there is a significant reduction in noise pollution of loud noises.
 
Just take the first step...
 

Waste and its types

Waste is all the residue from human and animal activities that is usually solid and unusable. According to the Law on Waste Management, this word refers to solids, liquids, and gases which are directly or indirectly the result of human activity and are considered useless by the producer.
Waste management is a set of coherent and systematic rules regarding the control of production, storage, collection, transportation, processing, and disposal of waste, following the best principles of public health, economy, resource protection, aesthetics, and other environmental requirements. By this definition, waste management includes all administrative, financial, legal, design, and engineering works in which the solutions to the problems of waste are left to the government by the residents. Solutions may involve a complex cross-sectoral relationship between disciplines such as political science, local and urban planning, geography, economics, public health, sociology, statistics, communications, and resource conservation, as well as engineering and materials science.
The term waste is general and includes all sources and types of different categories, compounds, and properties. Waste that should be discarded may be valuable to others or in another situation, but it is not valuable to the owner.
 

Types of waste

According to the Law on Waste Management, waste is divided into five groups, the types of which are given along with the relevant definitions:
- Normal waste: refers to all waste that is normally produced from the daily activities of humans in cities, villages, and beyond. Examples of this waste include household waste and construction waste.
- Medical waste (hospital): All infectious and harmful waste caused by hospitals, health centers, medical diagnostic laboratories, and other similar centers. Hazardous hospital waste is excluded from this definition.
- Special wastes (hazardous): All wastes that require special care due to the presence of at least one of the hazardous properties such as toxicity, pathogenicity, explosive or flammable, corrosive, and medical wastes.  Also, some normal, industrial, and agricultural wastes that need special management are considered as special wastes.
- Agricultural waste: Waste from production activities in the agricultural sector, animal carcasses (livestock, poultry, and aquatic animals), rotten or unusable agricultural products.
- Industrial waste: All wastes from industrial and mining activities and refining, oil, gas, and petrochemical industries and power plants such as chips, spills, or industrial sludge.
 
Knowledge of waste composition is necessary to evaluate and select collection equipment, processing, design programs, etc. On the other hand, to identify hazardous wastes, it is necessary to have sufficient knowledge about the nature and composition of the wastes. The ratio between different combinations of municipal waste depends on several factors, including the level of well-being of the people, people`s perception of the consumption of various materials, and the method of packaging materials.
 

On-site waste handling, storage, and processing

The handling, storage, and processing of waste at the production site before it is collected are some of the most effective elements in waste management. It is important to understand this element because it will have important effects on public health, the next effective elements, and the public perception of the waste management system. It is necessary to pay attention to the safety points in handling, storage, and processing at the waste site because some wastes are hazardous and failure to observe safety issues at different stages of handling, storage, and processing at the waste site can lead to accidents.
 

Hazardous waste

As the name implies, hazardous waste, if not properly managed, can lead to irreparable damage to humans, animals, the environment, and facilities. Due to the importance of proper and principled management of such wastes, different countries have established special rules and regulations for its management in the stages of production, storage, handling, transportation, and final disposal.
The increasing growth of chemical products, as well as the consumption of these substances in various industrial processes, is a clear sign of an industrial society. Although the use of these substances in various fields has greatly contributed to economic development, studies and experiments show that there are significant adverse effects associated with these substances. The adverse effects of hazardous waste are very different and varied. Some of these effects are short-lived and severe. Acute poisoning by hazardous chemicals is a clear example of this type of effect. Experiences from other countries show that children in the age group of 1 to 10 years are affected. Another category of health effects is long-term effects. These complications become apparent over a relatively long period and are mostly related to toxic properties, bioaccumulation, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and chemicals. Accordingly, the chemical composition of a waste product must be identified in terms of toxicity, carcinogenicity, adverse effects on the fetus and infant, as well as mutations and possibly other side effects. It should be noted that what makes some hazardous wastes more important than others is the extent of their use and application in various sectors of the economy.
 
Just take the first step...
 

Types of leather, based on animal skin cut

Leather is a durable and flexible material that is produced with the skin of animals. The most common raw material for leather production is cowhide. It is the leather tanning process that stabilizes and resists skin proteins, especially collagen, to increase the thermal, chemical, and microbiological stability of cow skin, making it useful to various leather products.
Cow skin is made of two integrated layers of corium and grain texture. The collagen fibers in the skin`s corium are thinner and more flexible. As you move to the outer skin tissue, it becomes thicker and firmer where the fibers are more densely and tightly wrapped. The corium layer becomes thicker as the animal ages as well. For this reason, the skin of calves is thinner and softer than the skin of larger animals. The outer tissue covered by the hair can be dotted and scratched such as insect bites, scars, or signs of burns. Sometimes it causes the upper part of the outer tissue of the skin to be peeled off and become smoother to make the leather look uniform.
 
Another factor influencing the quality of the leather is the physiology of the animal`s skin (cow), which is one of the most complex issues in the field of leather. Several factors are involved in the physiology of the skin and leather produced; Nutrition, climate, habitat, and skin of different parts of the animal body affect the quality of the finished leather. The skin of the face and legs of the animals has the lowest quality and the central parts of the animal`s body (back and waist) have the best quality of leather.
 

Types of leather, based on different cuts of the cowhide

- Grain leather
- Split leather
- Suede leather
- Nubuck leather
When the skin is completely shaved with all the top texture of cow skin, it is called grain leather. Even despite skin blemishes, grain leather is more expensive and more in demand due to its high durability. The cowhide has three general categories: aniline (ink), semi-aniline, and protected leather. Aniline leathers are processed using soluble dyes to preserve the natural texture of the skin and have no pigment or surface coating. This makes them look like natural leather, but they are more sensitive to scratches and stains. Aniline leathers are coated with pigments, thus hiding more stains. Therefore, these types of leathers have a more uniform appearance and coating, and as a result, have more protection. Protected leathers have a non-leathery coating that adheres to the cow`s natural leather as protection.
The lower part of the leather, the part where the two layers of Corium and Grain meet, is introduced by different names and can be confusing. Many people refer to this layer as "genuine leather", however, the term is not used consistently. You may come across many similar terms for this layer of skin and the leather produced from it. Modified leather, embossed leather, coated leather, dyed leather, etc. are among these titles, which here we introduce as split leather.
The middle layer of the skin can be divided into even thinner split leathers and used for various applications. A polymer coating is usually used to make split leather look like grain leather, but split leather is not as strong and durable. Another application of split leather is suede leather production, in which a special polish is applied to the leather to make it uneven and velvety. Suede is sometimes confused with nubuck leather. Suede is made of the inner part of the animal skin and has soft and short villi, while nubuck is made of the outermost layer of the skin and has high strength and is more resistant to scratches. Although nubuck is more durable than suede, due to the special softness and stability of suede, it has its application.
 

How to detect synthetic leather

There are several ways to simulate and produce leather. Split leather is sometimes polished in such a way that it plays a prominent role and looks more like high-value grain leather. It is not easy to distinguish artificial leather from natural leather. Today, with the development of the polymer and textile industry, various samples of synthetic leathers have been produced that are very similar in appearance to natural leather. It needs to be tested to distinguish it, but synthetic leathers, which are currently mainly available in the bag and shoe industry, can be detected by simple methods. The first method is to pay attention to the color and model of the leather`s back. The back of synthetic leather is usually made of fabric or plastic, which can be distinguished from natural leather. This type of diagnosis is also made easier by cutting the leather. Synthetic leather is usually not stretchy, while grain leather has a very slight discoloration when bent or stretched. Another method is to heat the tested leather. Natural leather, when burned with a small flame such as a match or lighter, emits an odor similar to hair burning, while synthetic leather smells like burning plastic.
 
Another point that should be considered by consumers is that many of the terms used in the leather industry are fixed and inconsistent in different forums. The most common mistake made in this case is to use the term genuine leather. Genuine leather is mostly used to describe low-quality split leather, while many buyers assume that the term genuine leather is used in the opposite sense to counterfeit leather or fake leather. Many sellers use the term genuine leather to express the fact that their products are not counterfeit leather. This makes customers skeptical, even if the product is made of very durable and suitable leather. Therefore, the task of Ark Safety Industry as a manufacturer of safety shoes, military boots, office shoes, and hiking boots is to have a complete explanation for its customers in the field of leather used in their products.
 
Just Take the First Step...

Get ready for winter conditions by wearing the right safety shoes

Even if the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has only set out the general requirements for cold weather protection clothing, this does not mean that protecting workers from the severe cold conditions is not in the employer`s concern. Cold weather can be an occupational hazard that can lead to injuries, workers` compensation claims, reduced work speeds, and lower performance. Although OSHA does not require employers to provide winter equipment, providing safety clothing and footwear for employees is worth the investment. Appropriate safety clothing and shoes are in a way that prevent cold air from entering the clothing in winter and waste body heat. Enables employees to work effectively in a freezing work environment. Even when road workers are on the roads and highways surrounded by drivers in winter weather, safety clothing and shoes suitable for the cold season and severe weather conditions are even more important for their safety and increase their capacity.
 
Safety clothing such as coats, overalls, and sarees should not only protect workers from the cold but should also be designed to allow them to easily carry out their duties with flexibility and freedom in movement. When choosing winter protective clothing, look for coats and jackets with features such as waterproof to protect against rain and throat protectors to prevent wind penetration to eliminate the cold. Comfortable clothes such as jeans are not a good protector in cold weather. Jeans easily absorb water from melting snow or rain and can not have much insulation. Layered clothes can also be a good choice because they trap air between the layers and warm the body more than a thick jacket or coat. Coats with removable liners enable workers to easily adjust the layers they wear depending on the situation, which can vary during a working day.
 
Winter slip protection with proper safety shoes
Slipping is one of the most common workplace hazards and often leads to workers` damages as a result of head injuries, back injuries, bone fractures, and tears. Of course, maintaining safe working conditions is the most important way to prevent these accidents. However, suitable winter shoes play a very important role in the safety of workers and the prevention of slipping and falling. Aside from the outsole of working shoes, having a great insole also plays a big role in keeping your feet comfortable throughout the day. It is important to buy the right insole for your work. Insoles have many benefits, including preventing further foot pain and fatigue.
 
Depending on the nature and environment of the workplace, safety or protective shoes may include features of a steel toe cap, composite toe cap, ergonomic sole, non-slip outsole, cold-resistant, heat-resistant, and chemical-resistant boots. Many shoes are made of grain leather. Grain leather shoes are easier to wear due to their stretch and flexibility, and the foot feels more comfortable all day long. Waterproof shoes can prevent frostbite in wet conditions, which is especially suitable for workers who often have to stay in wet places. A suitable outsole that stretches would protect workers from slipping on snow and ice. Anti-slippery soles provide reliable traction in winter conditions and are very suitable.

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Special Signs of Safety shoes

Do not miss this article if you are involved in buying safety shoes and have questions about the signs of safety shoes. In several articles, you have seen some of these codes and different signs related to safety shoes, but you do not know how to use them. Choosing the right safety shoes for your work environment is vital, and the safety shoe signs give you the important specifications and features of your shoes. It is important to know all the features of your work shoes to make sure that the shoes you use are suitable for your work environment and conditions. But do you know what the codings and signs on safety shoes say?
 
Safety shoes are usually tested according to European standards. According to these standards, the Iranian Standards Organization also relates to Iranian safety shoes. The following is the European standard number EN 20345:2011, which is equivalent to the Iranian standard 1136:
 
You may have already seen EN ISO standards in other shoes. Shoes designed before 2004 and also produced until 2004 are in accordance with EN ISO 20345: 2004, but after editing in 2011 are under EN 20345:2011.
 
SB: Abbreviation for Safety Basic, which is the standard basis for safety shoes. SB safety shoes must have a toe cap with an impact resistance of 200 joules.
  
S1: Having SB properties and having antistatic properties, energy absorption in the heel area, and resistance to fuel or oil materials
 
S2: Having S1 properties and water resistance of the shoe sole
 
S3: Having S2 characteristics and resistance to the penetration of sharp objects into the soles of the feet such as chips or nails
 
S4: Antistatic properties, energy absorption in the heel area of the shoe, resistance to fuel and oily materials, toe cap with resistance up to 200 joules, and completely waterproof
 
S5: Characteristics of S4 and resistance to penetration of sharp and sharp objects into the sole
 

Slipper safety shoe symptoms

Safety shoes slip test is classified into three categories:
 
SRA: Shoe slip test on a wet ceramic tile with a diluted soap solution such as sodium sulfate
 
SRB: Shoe slip test on flat steel with glycerol
 
SRC: If the shoe can pass both of the SRA and SRB tests
 
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How to take care of safety shoes

Safety shoes are the most important part of personal protective equipment and play an essential role in worker safety. However, daily use of safety shoes, depending on the environment and nature of the work, can make the shoes less durable. Outside environments, harsh working conditions, chemicals, mud, or corrosive materials that you come in contact with are all factors that negatively affect the performance of safety shoes. That is why they must be cleaned regularly to ensure their efficiency.
Daily maintenance of shoes is easy and anyone can do it alone. The best way to dramatically increase the life and performance of your shoes is to clean them regularly every day.
 
Here are some tips for proper care and how we can extend the life of our work shoes, stay tuned.
 
1.Do not apply too much pressure when cleaning the shoes, especially when the shoes are new!
 
2.Our feet produce heat and moisture. These are factors that can affect the durability of safety shoes (as well as the spread of bacteria that cause foot odor). Change your shoes at the end of your workday. Shoe soles should be dry. Let the soles dry in the open air! There is no need for a heat source to dry the shoes and only open-air is enough!
 
3.Always loosen the shoelaces completely before removing the shoe and use the shoehorn both at home and work, as this protects the heel part of the shoe from damage and brittleness prematurely.
 
4.Clean your shoes every day! Remove dust and seams at the top and bottom. Remove stones that are in the grooves of the sole and can cause gradual wear. You can use cleaning brushes to clean the crevices of the sole to check for signs of shoe wear (cracking, peeling in the area between the sole and the upper material, any seams).
Leather-soled shoes can only be cleaned with a damp cloth and suede shoes with a soft brush. Do not forget to always keep your shoes dry!
 
5.Always have a pair of safety shoes available! For the shoes to dry well and reduce the problems caused by excessive sweating, it is important to use a second pair of shoes.
 
6.Use a sponge soaked in warm water to remove stains that are easier to remove. To remove stains that are difficult to remove, you can dip a soft cloth in a little white vinegar and use it to clean.
 
7.To clean the leather, you can use a cotton swab soaked in water and cleansing milk and clean the surface of any dirt with slow movements.
 
8. Do not use a damp cloth to clean suede shoes! Only use brushes with plastic bristles that have good density. For stains that are difficult to clean, you can use special suede cleaners. If you do not manage to remove the stain with the mentioned items, soak a sponge cloth in some vinegar and gently wipe the stain with it.
 
9.If your job is to deal with oil stains, it is recommended to use cotton soaked in cleansing milk.
 
10. Never use strong cleaners to remove dirt or stains!
 
11. If you use work shoes in harsh and humid environments, you should use leather wax. In this way, the shoes remain flexible and waterproof for a long time. Especially in the winter when the shoes are exposed to snow and mud, try to soak them regularly in leather wax.
 
12.Do not allow shoes to dry near heat sources or in direct sunlight. This will cause them to become brittle and cracked!
 
13. Safety shoes should never be washed in the washing machine unless explicitly stated.
 
 
Proper care of safety shoes is not just a matter of beauty and hygiene, but also a matter of safety and the effectiveness of a protective standard.
Your shoes ensure your safety and protection in the workplace. Take good care of them!
 
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Features of standard workwear

Industrial work clothes are considered as one of the personal protective equipment and all employees must be present at their workplace with appropriate work clothes. Employees` work uniforms have characteristics that are provided to employees under special regulations. Workwear, as a universal covering of the body, usually protects the hands and feet against environmental conditions.
 

Characteristics and standards of industrial workwear

Work clothes should be the right size and fit for the user. Employees who work with or near machines must wear work clothes that are not open or torn. Have night vision as much as possible. It is strictly forbidden to hang chains, watches, keys, etc. on work clothes. In the workplace where there is a risk of explosion or fire, the use of drains or glasses made of solenoids, as well as other flammable materials, is strictly prohibited for the relevant employees. If working requires employees to constantly roll up their sleeves, they should wear short-sleeved workwear.
Employees working in dusty, flammable, or poisonous environments should not wear pocket or double-breasted clothing, as dust and such materials may be present. For employees who work with corrosive or harmful substances, water, and gas should not penetrate their clothing. Clothing material should be suitable for the type of substance or materials they work with. Employees working with acidic and radioactive materials must be seamless and non-perforated with special caps, shoes, and gloves made of special and impermeable material.
 
Work clothes should not be loose, especially the parts of the sleeves, and should not be so tight that the body parts are exposed when working. The sleeves should not be turned upside down or piped.
Tip 1: Workers whose clothing is contaminated with petroleum or hazardous chemicals should immediately wash or change their clothing and wash the part of the body that has been in contact with. None of the employees has the right to approach the fire, flame, or other heat sources with clothes soaked in petroleum or chemicals.
Tip 2: In case of tear, damage, or contamination with dangerous petroleum or chemical materials, you should clean it and if it needs to be replaced, inform the relevant supervisor.
Tip 3: Clothes soaked in oil or grease should be removed immediately, as it may cause skin discomfort.
 

What material should industrial workwear be made of?

Fabric material according to the working conditions and the need for the appearance of clothing in terms of resistance to shrinkage and also the lack of static electricity from a mixture of about 71% cotton and 31% polyester and weighing 320 gr / m2 to 420 gr / m2 and according to Climatic conditions and different seasons should be considered. In situations where there is a possibility of burning due to the shedding of pleats or under the influence of high heat, such as welding work clothes, the material of work clothes should be 11% cotton. To increase the strength of the fabric with a crooked texture with a high density of 2 threads and a fabric and forty-two yarns of the ring-type should be used.
To make the dye more durable and to prevent the fabric after washing, as well as to prevent the fabric from melting, reactive dyes have been used in dyeing the fabric. Durable work clothes should be produced by choosing high-quality fabric, using strong stitching, and also double seam spinning. Using the right pattern, the work clothes should be well-sewn and well-tailored, and provided in standard sizes.
 

What logo and signs should standard work clothes have?

Work clothes should be such as to indicate in which job group or unit the person wearing the dress works. The symbol can be a logo, a code, or even the color of the clothes. The following can be considered for the signs of workwear:
• The background color of the logo or the color of the clothes must be clear to indicate different units.
• The logo should be prepared by using high quality and fixed silk screen printing.
• The place of installation of the logo is on the chest or left arm.

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Signing cooperation agreement between Ark Safety Industry and the Health Faculty of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

Today, industry and academia are two key institutions for any society. The cooperation of the industry and academia has become a precondition for the development of societies. The existence of specialized scientific staff, research, and laboratory capabilities are considered a basic precondition for the development of industries in different countries. Fortunately, today, universities, as centers for the training of specialized personnel, have a very suitable platform for scientific, research, and laboratory activities. On the other hand, the industry is known as the main centers of work and activity, as practical laboratories and a place to turn knowledge into action. Therefore, it can be said that industry and university are complementary to each other, and every society needs these two categories and their effective relationship to achieve their development goals. Today, universities can cooperate with industry in various fields, including research-educational cooperation, technology transfer, and so on.
Unfortunately, in recent years, in our country, contrary to the macro policies of communication, the relationship between academia and industry has become a major challenge for both parties and many problems in this regard have been faced by business partners and academics. Ark Safety Industry, as one of the leading industries in the production of personal protective equipment to advance development goals and protect the workforce in the country`s industries, needs to use the existing potentials in prestigious universities in line with the explained goals. In this regard, it has signed an agreement with the Health Faculty of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences to establish and expand educational and research cooperation, especially in the field of HSE in the following areas:
1- Consulting and implementation of research-applied projects required by the company, especially in health promotion, the establishment of management systems related to HSE based on existing criteria
2- Holding seminars, workshops, webinars, and short-term training courses to upgrade the scientific and technical level of the company`s experts and researchers and other stakeholders of the company and issuing relevant certificates
3- Judging and supervising the company`s research projects as needed
4- Reciprocal use of available information resources and equipment such as libraries, laboratories, measuring devices, etc. in compliance with administrative and financial rules and regulations
5- Conducting mutual scientific visits and accepting interns by the company
6- Providing advice on areas related to the cooperation agreement by the Health Faculty staff
7- Advice on designing different scenarios for the production of clips, animations, and educational contents
8- Supervision of the Health Faculty on HSE-related educational contents prepared by the company`s experts
 
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Making shoe molds in China

Today, the exchange of information and technologies is one of the important pillars of economic activities. The use of modern technologies in the world will reduce costs, increase product quality, and ultimately customer satisfaction. Tabriz is one of the powerful shoe production centers in Iran. But with the advent of Chinese shoes, rising production costs, and the problems of the paint industry, the production of safety shoes in this city has declined. Iran has a young population who care about their appearance and according to Islamic values are very careful about their cleanliness and virtue, while Iranian shoe manufacturers do not have the power to produce a lot of shoe varieties.
To solve these problems and produce flexible shoes, modern machines should be used to minimize production time and increase variety. Due to the high speed of mold making in China, we are now turning to mold making in this country to resume Iranian production and at least prevent the import of foreign shoes to Iran. In the meantime, we have cooperated with Chinese craftsmen to launch a diverse product line of shoes, and we are ready to cooperate and provide solutions to domestic manufacturers and improve the production of the Iranian shoe industry. Ark Safety Industry is the official representative of China Molding in Iran.
 
 
 

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Tabriz Live Shoe Museum

Shoe sewing was performed live at the Tabriz Shoe Museum with the art of the veterans of the Tabriz shoe industry.
Tabriz shoe industry has a long history and world fame and to introduce the value and importance of Tabriz shoes with the help of Tabriz Shoemakers Union from Tabriz Live Shoe Museum held in Tabriz Municipality building located in Saat Square in March 20th, 2018. Master Mr. Eghbali sewed shoes for Nowruz travelers to introduce the production process of Tabriz leather shoes. This museum has been set up with the help of Mr. Manafi, a veteran of the Tabriz shoe industry. The mayor of Tabriz also visited this exhibition.
 
In this museum, in addition to live performances of the shoe production process, old tools of the shoe industry were also exhibited.
 
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Iranian shoe production ranks 12th in the world

Iran is the 12th largest shoe producer in the world, producing 177 million pairs of shoes annually. "This country has a 0.8% share in global footwear production," said the head of the Iranian Association of Managers and Specialists in the Shoe Industry.
Ali Lashgari, who spoke at the ninth meeting of the Industry and Mining Commission of the Tehran Chamber of Commerce, Industries, Mines and Agriculture, noted: China is the largest shoe producer in the world with an annual production of 13.52 billion pairs and 57% global share. China accounts for 34.9% of global footwear exports.
He also added: The consumption of shoes in Iran is estimated at 227 million pairs per year, of which Iran`s share of world consumption is 1.1 percent and the share of imports from consumption is 22.4 percent. Simply put, the shoe consumption rate in Europe and the United States was 7 pairs per year; But this coefficient is 2 in Iran. This means that if people consume three pairs instead of two pairs of shoes, the country`s shoe industry will prosper.
 
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Safety Data Sheets

As mentioned in the site`s article on the "Hazards That Threaten People's Lives in the Workplace", one of the most common hazards is the hazards of chemicals. In recent years, one of the solutions offered to reduce the damage caused by chemicals has been material safety information. In this regard, manufacturers were required to provide safety and health information for their products. That`s why material safety data sheets were created. One of the most important issues in the development of material safety data sheets has been the discussion of the Right to Know Act. This law, which has been implemented in many countries, outlines that everyone has the right to know what kind of substance and what side effects and harms they are dealing with in the workplace. To this end, safety data sheets were considered as a very convenient way to convey material safety and health information to people.
 

SDS or MSDS

Safety Data Sheets, also known as Material Safety Data Sheets or Product Safety Data Sheets, are documents that contain information such as physical properties (such as boiling point, freezing point, flammability point), toxicity, health effects, first aid, reactivity, storage method, protective equipment requirements, necessary measures in case of leakage, etc. Preparing and installing material safety data sheets in the workplace is a good way to provide material safety information. There have been different formats for MSDS for a long time, these formats were different from country to country and even in some cases from organization to organization. This led to the standardization of material safety information format, so SDSs were created.
 
SDS and MSDS are two words that are often used interchangeably. MSDSs are the SDSs that were called before the creation of the Harmonized System for the classification and labeling of chemicals. The small difference between MSDSs and SDSs is due to the presentation format. With the creation of the Globally Harmonized System (GHS), SDSs, which are a standardized format consisting of 16 sections, replaced MSDSs in providing material safety information. In this format, risk expressions, safety expressions, and visual symbols are used to provide information. SDSs usually consist of several pages. In contrast, MSDSs do not have a mandatory format, do not have a standard wording, and can vary in quality of content.
 

Using MSDS is necessary for three groups of people:

1- Workers who are exposed to chemicals in the workplace.
2- Workers who need to be aware of the proper transport and storage of materials and also the safe use of chemicals.
3- People who take action to control the situation during an emergency such as firefighters, chemical equipment crews, emergency technicians, and people in emergency rooms.
Concerning consumers, one point should be noted that SDSs are not required for all people who use materials. For example, a person who uses paint once a year to paint his building doesn`t need SDSs, but for a painter who works 40 hours a week, it is necessary.
Health and safety experts usually have two concerns about SDSs. Where to get the SDS of the materials they use? And appropriate guidance for SDS usage?
Today, the SDS of materials can be obtained in a variety of ways. For example, today most companies that produce or even distribute chemicals send the materials SDS to the buyer. That`s why most industries have a set of safety data sheets. If your company has not received such sheets, you can contact your supplier and request these sheets. If the supplier can not meet your needs, be sure to contact the customer service of the manufacturer. Another way is the university and some industries websites. Usually, some universities and industries have a set of material safety sheets on their site. Other sources include the Internet, which usually has a large number of safety sheets available for free. In some cases, buying software or buying subscriptions from reputable sites can also be helpful in this regard.
 
Some reputable sites providing safety data sheets are listed below that can be used to obtain a large number of materials SDSs.
1- msds.com
2- https: //www.msdsonline.com/sds-search/
3- http: //www.msdsprovider.com/
4- https://chemicalsafety.com/sds-search/
5- https: //hazard.com//msds/index.php
6- http://www.cambridgesoft.com/databases/login/?serviceid=128
7- https: //apps.netmsds.com/cgi-bin/cpvweb
 
People can get the information they need about safety data sheets by attending safety conferences and courses. There are also several suitable and valid guides on the Internet that are mentioned below.
1- American Occupational Safety and Health(OSHA) Guidance: This organization, which is part of the US Department of Labor, aims to ensure safe and healthy working conditions for male and female employees by enforcing mandatory standards and providing training, counseling, and education. OSHA was created in the 1970s. This organization provides material safety data sheet guidance.
2- Canadian Center for Occupational Safety and Health (CCOHS) Guidance: This center was established in 1978 by a majority vote of the Canadian Parliament to promote the physical, mental and emotional health of the Canadian workforce. The center provides guidance to increase people`s awareness of safety data sheets.
3. American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Guide: This association provides instructions on safety data sheets.
 
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Hazards That Threaten People's Lives in the Workplace P2

Increasing occupational safety and health is one of the most important policies of any country to reduce the damage caused by accidents and occupational diseases to employers and society. How can these staggering costs be avoided? The answer is simple, identify hazards, and follow workplace safety rules. In this article, we are going to introduce the remainder of the 10 important hazards that people face in their workplaces.
 

6- Biological hazards

Another danger that can cause harm to people in the workplace is biological factors. People are usually exposed to these factors due to working conditions, type of activity, consumption of various substances. These factors fall into five general categories: Viruses, Bacteria, Rickettsia, Fungi, and Parasites. These factors can greatly affect the work environment. Before the outbreak of coronavirus in 2020, these factors were not given much attention in the workplace. This has caused many industries to face serious problems and shutdowns. The outbreak of this virus showed that organizations and industries should prepare themselves for such crises. Changing the way things are done can be very effective in controlling such diseases. Carrying out activities remotely, performing engineering measures (such as improving ventilation systems), training, and employing specialized personnel in the field of health can be very effective in controlling these factors.
 

7- Chemical hazards

Chemicals in the workplace are generally materials in the form of gas, liquid, or solid. Chemicals include all raw materials, intermediate materials, and supplementary materials in the production process. These substances can have different physiological effects on humans. Generally, they are divided into several categories, including 1- Inflammatory and stimulant substances 2- Suffocating substances 3- Anesthetics and narcotics 4- Systemic toxins 5- Other suspended substances.
In addition to their physiological effects on humans, chemicals can be the source of many other accidents, such as fires and explosions in the workplace. It is required that MSDS of all chemicals should be available in the workplace.
 

8- Ergonomic hazards

Ergonomics is the science of human interaction with the environment and various tools. Ergonomics is closely related to the safety and health of employees in the workplace. Ergonomics is a science that designs work environments, tools, and tasks to match the physiological, psychological, anatomical, and abilities of individuals. In short, ergonomics is the science of adapting the work environment to the abilities of workers and preventing disease, injury, and stress in people. Poor ergonomic design can lead to muscle strain and skeletal and muscular injuries. Therefore, it is recommended that employers use ergonomic knowledge in designing tools and workstations, as well as in planning work shifts to minimize injuries to people.
 

9- Physically harmful factors in the workplace

Physical factors in the workplace are divided into different categories. These factors include noise, vibration, heat, cold, poor lighting, and radiation in the workplace. In addition to having a direct impact on people`s health, these factors can be a secondary cause of many other diseases and injuries in the workplace. For example, loud noise in addition to hearing damage, physiological and psychological effects can cause accidents in the workplace. The important thing about these factors is the personal expertise and ability of individuals. Susceptible individuals can be harmed much sooner in inappropriate environments.
 

10- Lack of visual and audio equipment

Failure to use warning devices can be considered a hazard in the workplace. Unfortunately, many workplaces do not have warning devices. Signs, stickers, hangers, and other safety signs in the workplace visually remind people of the dangers. Proper use of these tools can prevent accidents in the workplace. Also in case of emergency, these are the tools that show the emergency exit for people and inform them of the occurrence of an emergency.
 
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Hazards That Threaten People's Lives in the Workplace P1

Did you know that according to the official statistics available in the country, about 10,000 job accidents occur in Iran every year? Unfortunately, about 900 people lose their lives as a result of these accidents in industrial units. The direct and indirect costs of these accidents impose a heavy financial burden on society. Increasing occupational safety and health is one of the most important policies of any country to reduce the damage caused by accidents and occupational diseases to employers and society. How can these staggering costs be avoided? The answer is simple, identify hazards, and follow workplace safety rules. In this article, we are going to introduce the 10 important hazards that people face in their workplaces.

1- Slipping or falling

Falls are one of the most common causes of injury in the workplace. Falls can occur for a variety of reasons in the workplace and even in non-work environments (for example, the causes of falls can be uneven floor surfaces, wet and damp floors, cables left in the workplace, etc). Employers have to pay a lot of money for these accidents every year, while if safety regulations are observed, such accidents in the workplace can be diminished. As you know, the employer is responsible for ensuring the safety of his workers and employees in the workplace.
 
Accidents have always happened throughout history and will happen in the future, but simple steps can make the work environment safer and prevent many accidents. For example, observing such things as implementing the 5S system, cleaning stains and spilled liquids on the workplace floor, placing equipment in its places, improving lighting, preparing work instructions for height, and require workers to wear non-slip safety shoes can prevent many falls.
 

2- Electric current

Any electric wires can harm people, whether they are touched directly by people or indirectly transmitted to an individual through an electrical conductor. Voltages above 50 volts are considered dangerous to humans and should be taken seriously. A broken wire cover of motors and electrical devices due to wear or burn can cause a source of danger in the workplace. Unfortunately, some annual accidents that occur due to exposure to electricity in the workplace are fatal. Electric shock can in many cases cause severe and permanent damage. Most of these electric shocks are caused by defective workplace equipment that can be prevented with a proper precautionary measure. Some of the basics of electrical safety include: maintenance of all electrical installations and equipment at appropriate intervals, isolating people by selecting appropriate personal protective equipment, using protective relays, connecting the metal body of the devices to the ground, and replacing damaged power cables. It should be carried in mind that defective electrical appliances can sometimes lead to fires in the workplace.
 

3- Fire

Businesses that are too weak to maintain workplace regulations are available to the public (for deliberate fires), and businesses that use defective equipment must anticipate the fire. In addition to the damage to buildings, fires can cause damage to people and the reputation of the business (for example, the Tehran Plasco accident, which caused extensive financial and human damage). This is while proper safety measures can prevent such fires from occurring. Installing fire detectors and sensors to reduce detection and extinguishing time can be effective in preventing the spread of the fire. Of course, this equipment needs to be tested periodically and must be connected to an alternative power supply so that it can operate properly in the absence of electricity. It is also necessary to have an emergency response plan in the organization and people are aware of their duties in the case of a fire and proper ways to leave the building.
 
 In order to deal with fire, the presence of appropriate and sufficient numbers of fire extinguishers, in the workplace is very necessary. If people work by the flames, fire-resistant work clothes should be used. Flammable materials must be stored safely, unused electrical equipment must be switched off and unplugged. The preparation of MSDS is essential for people to be aware of the type of chemicals and ways to extinguish it. Fire is an issue that employers and employees have a very important role to play in dealing with.
 

4- Work in confined places

Enclosed spaces can become dangerous places to work. Tanks, silos, pits, trenches, wells, sewers, drains, pipe ducts, and rooms without ventilation or poor air conditioning can increase the risk of death or serious injury. Welding, painting, flame-cutting, use of chemicals in small spaces, gas leakage in closed spaces can create dangerous working conditions. Poor training can harm not only the workers trapped in these spaces but also the people who are trying to save them. Other things that can happen in such places if you are not careful are lack of oxygen, the release of toxic gas, working with liquids and solids that suddenly fill the enclosed space, etc. Residues from combustion can emit gas, smoke, steam, and dust for a long time. Such materials can cause hot working conditions.
A very clear way to reduce the risk of working in confined spaces is to prevent entering those places primarily. Is it really necessary for people to go to limited space and work there? If it is unavoidable, precautions must be taken. Training and preparing appropriate instructions for entering the confined space can be very effective in reducing these accidents.
 

5- Mechanical hazards

The term mechanical hazards here refers to a group of hazards that can cause physical harm to individuals. These risks are one of the most common occupational hazards and often occur in most work environments. Unprotected machines, moving parts of machines, cutting and pressing machines, pinch points, nip points, and crushing hazards are among the sources of these hazards. As you work through your daily job, you are likely to face one of these dangers. Employers must ensure the safety of their employees against such risks. Providing training to workers on how to work properly with equipment and how to observe safety principles can be very helpful.
 
To be continued...

International Labour Organization

Improving working conditions over the years has occupied the minds of many people. The need for an organization to improve the working conditions was pursued by two Welsh and French social reformers, Robert Owen and Daniel Legrand. The first major step in this direction was the establishment of an international conference in 1890 with representatives of 14 countries in Berlin. At this conference, proposals were made for the development of regulations on the minimum age for employment, improvement of working conditions for women and adolescents. In 1898 another conference was held in Brussels. And in 1900, the International Society for the Legal Protection of Workers was established. Finally, after World War I, when the peace conference was held at the Palace of Versailles, International Labor Organization (ILO) established to support workers` rights and create favorable working conditions and adequate facilities for employment and living standards for workers throughout the world. The goal of this organization was to establish social justice, freedom and economic security and to create equal opportunities for all nations, as well as to formulate international rules and regulations, optimize international labor standards and ensure their employment.
The ILO Act was drafted by the Labor Commission at the International Peace Conference between January and April 1919. The commission was composed of representatives from nine countries: Belgium, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, France, Italy, Japan, Poland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The result of this meeting was the creation of a tripartite organization, which was the only organization that set government representatives, employers, and workers in one place. ILO is the eighth chapter of the Versailles Treaty.
At the beginning of its establishment, about 45 countries became members of the International Labor Organization. The first meeting of the International Labor Organization was attended by two representatives of the government and employers and workers from each member state who met on October 29, 1919. The meeting addressed issues related to the first six topics of the International Labor Act on working hours in industry, unemployment, protection of pregnant women, minimum working age, and night work for adolescents in the industry.

Currently, about 180 countries are members of this organization. Iran has been a member of the International Labor Organization since the first year of its formation, and in 1945, for the first time, a full delegation from Iran participated in the International Labor Conference.
The organization`s meetings are held in June each year in Geneva, workers and employers representatives express their views.
In 1944, the organization held meetings in Philadelphia, USA, following which the Philadelphia Declaration was adopted, according to which the International Labor Organization was obliged to pursue the following issues in countries around the world:
• Employment of all people and increase the standard of living
• Employing workers with jobs that fit their capabilities
• Creating the necessary facilities for training workers
• Provide opportunities for progress and ways for all people to be fair, in terms of wages, difficult work, and working conditions
• Creating favorable cooperation between workers and employers
• Support workers` health in all jobs
• Providing welfare facilities for children and mothers
• Development of social insurance for all workers and provision of complete medical treatment
• Provide appropriate food and culture and cultural facilities and healthy recreation
• Creating equal facilities for training workers
• Organization of the International Labor Organization
The organization has a general assembly, an executive board, a permanent secretariat, and other parties.
 

1- General Assembly

This assembly is convened once a year with the participation of member representatives. Each member state sends two representatives of the government, one representative of the employer, and one representative of the workers to the assembly. Each of these representatives can have their technical advisors. One chairman and three vice-chairmen are elected for each session of the General Assembly.
The main activity of the General Assembly is to establish a minimum standard for the working and living conditions of workers. The criteria adopted by the representative of the General Assembly shall be included in the Agreements and Instructions of the International Labor Organization and shall be adopted by a majority of the votes of the General Assembly. Creating conditions for these recommendations should be approved and implemented by the country`s authorities. The instructions of the International Labor Organization are for the government`s attention and their guidance in providing occupational health and social welfare of workers. It does not have to go beyond the approval of the legislature. Member States are required to notify the International Labor Organization of the approval or non-approval of the Instructions. These reports are reviewed by a committee of experts. Another task of the Assembly is to elect the members of the Executive Board, to approve the program and budget, and to determine the policy regarding the executive proposals or the representatives of the countries.
 

2. Executive Board

The Executive Board of the International Labor Organization shall be elected by the General Assembly every three years. The executive board consists of 56 people, of which 28 represent the government, 14 represent the workers and 14 represent the employers. Out of 28 government representatives, 10 are elected by the industrialized countries and another 18 are elected by the representatives of other countries.
 

3. International Labor Office

This office is the secretariat of the organization and is responsible for administrative and clerical affairs and providing the means for holding the assembly. The unit is headed by the general director of the International Labor Office and is based in Geneva.
 
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Safety shoes suitable for different jobs and work environments

Your health in the workplace depends on your feet. Taking care of them is a high priority for every worker. This means that choosing work footwear that fits the nature of the person`s job is inevitable. While a standard pair of safety goggles or earmuffs may cover a wide range of occupations and potential hazards, choosing the right safety footwear may require extra care to ensure that the shoes you choose meet all your needs. Accidents that occur in the workplace come in many forms for the feet. The best way to protect employees in high-risk work environments is to control and prevent accidents using engineering, training, HSE regulations, and management controls. If these controls are not possible in the workplace personal protective equipment and especially appropriate safety shoes should be used.

 

How to choose your safety shoes?

Shoes should be chosen based on the hazards in your work environment. For example, if you work in an area where you may be at risk of falling objects, choosing an ankle-protection boot does not eliminate the risk. Shoes with a steel toe cap are suitable for many hazards in different work environments, but are they the right choice for you? Taking the time to make sure what kind of shoes you choose exactly for your work environment can create a world of difference.
ASTM F2413 contains the required performance specifications for safety and foot protection shoes. This standard covers the minimum requirements for the design, performance, testing, and classification of safety footwear. ASTM F2413 valid shoes must first meet the requirements for impact and pressure resistance. Additional requirements such as foot protection, electrical conduction protection, static drop protection, and object penetration protection can then be considered.
Here are some of the most common hazards in the workplace that require foot protection. You can use this article to identify and choose shoes based on your workplace needs.

Electrical hazards

For workers who have any contact with electricity in the workplace, electrical insulating shoes are an essential part of personal protective equipment. A simple electrician or person working with high voltage circuits and machines need protection against electrical hazards. Electrically insulated shoes are produced with non-conductive and impact-resistant soles and heels. Ark offers Rima safety shoes and Pro boots with electrical insulation. Rino high voltage shoes are the type of shoes that are suitable for high voltage electricity up to 20 kV. These types of shoes prevent electrical connections and ultimately reduce the risk of electric shock.

Explosive Materials

If you work around explosives or other highly reactive or flammable materials, you will likely need electrical insulating shoes (namely ESD feature). Electrically conductive work shoes help prevent static electricity. Without this precaution, static electricity on your body can easily ignite and cause a fire or explosion. Silk, wool, and nylon socks should not be worn in this type of work environment or with this type of shoes, as these materials also generate static electricity.

Falling objects

If you are at risk of falling objects, you will need safety boots with a toe cap. These safety shoes have a toe protector, which is usually made of steel. For example, Ark Luna safety shoes with steel toe cap and Ark Nova safety shoes with a composite toe cap are among the safety shoes that can withstand an impact of 200 joules.
Sharp and cutting objects
Sharp objects on the floor of the workplace pose a serious risk to employees. Sharp objects such as nails or screws can pierce the soles of ordinary shoes and damage your foot. Object-resistant safety shoes (so-called with anti-nail soles) include a steel plate that sits in the middle of the sole and protects against the dangers of stepping on sharp objects. All Ark safety shoes can be customized with an anti-nail plate.
 

Heavy Machinery

Some work shoes have more protection along the metatarsus (the upper part of your foot). If you have ever dropped anything on top of your foot, you know how dangerous it can be to your foot. Any work involving heavy machinery, heavy loads, or hazardous conditions may require the use of metatarsal boots.
 

Cold

Working in cold conditions means dressing to keep warm, and your shoes are no exception. Thermal insulation boots are essential if you work outdoors or are exposed to extreme cold. Feet that are not properly insulated from the cold are exposed to frostbite and other cold-related hazards. Ark Rima boot with grain leather upper can protect your feet from the cold to a great extent.

Humidity

Waterproof leather boots are a popular choice when working in wet conditions. Working in a humid environment puts you at risk of getting wet. So keeping your feet dry also helps to protect them from the cold. Shoes with waterproof leather also protect against rot and fungal growth. For this problem, Ark Safety Industry also intends to produce some models, such as Openka with microfiber waterproof leather.
 

Slippery surfaces

Slip-resistant shoes are required for many types of industries. Health workers, food industry workers, metal and automotive industry workers, factory workers, etc. This list is almost endless. Slip-resistant shoes come with a sole that reduces smoothness and increases friction and prevents accidents. Ark Pro safety boots with PU-TPU outsole are a good choice for working on slippery surfaces.

Flame and molten metals

Working with molten metals carries great risks. Casting, welding, or excavation shoes are made specifically for this type of job. These shoes are designed to insulate against extreme heat or other environmental conditions. They prevent hot metals from entering the shoe seams. For this purpose, it is recommended to use safety boots with plastic soles.

Ark experts` advice on work shoes

In choosing the right shoes, several factors must be considered. You need to make sure that you feel safe and comfortable in the ankle area and that you can move well. For this reason, each model of Ark safety shoes is produced in 2 types of short legs or long legs. You also need to make sure that the feet fit snugly into the safety shoes. A suitable but loose or oversized shoe can be a danger in the workplace. Paying attention to the work environment and identifying possible dangers, as well as examining environmental conditions such as humidity, heat, the presence of coils and electrical wires, etc., is the most important principle before buying and choosing safety shoes. Always make sure that the shoes you choose are according to the instructions set by your company and for the type of work you do.
 

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Types of shoe soles and their characteristics

No shoe is complete without a sole. The sole of the shoe is the base and the main pillar of the shoe. There are different types of soles, the most common outsole in Iran is PU shoe sole, which stands for polyurethane. These materials are in the form of liquid and two components called polyol and isocyanate, which react with each other when combined and produce PU outsole.
 
Specifications of PU outsole: It has a low density that makes the shoe light. It has moderate abrasion and will not break at all if the polyol and isocyanate materials are combined properly. It has low friction strength and can be both soft and hard. PU can have two colors in different densities and is mostly used in men`s shoes.
 
Specifications of TPU: TPU is an elastomeric thermoplastic based on polyurethane, TPU is completely transparent and one of the important properties of TPU is its excellent elasticity. It has very little wear. It does not break at all and has high friction strength. Due to its weight, the lower part of the outsole is usually made of TPU and the upper part is made of PU so that it is both soft and has high friction properties and is light at the same time. Usually used in specialized safety shoes.
 
Rubber outsole specifications: Shoes with rubber outsoles are usually heavy but of good quality. These outsoles are usually used in military and mountaineering shoes. These outsoles are also used in safety shoes. It has high frictional strength and the abrasion resistance is high.
 
Specifications of PVC outsole: It is the cheapest and lightest sole of PVC shoes and is made in the form of granules. It has low friction and is produced in different grades of soft and hard. It is brittle in low temperatures and winter conditions. It is light, usually used in making slippers, cheap sandals, and shoes.
 
EVA outsole specifications: These outsoles are very light. They are in the form of granules and used more in casual shoes. Because they deform at different temperatures, they are usually combined with rubber and TPU to prevent deformation. They slip in aqueous mediums, which is why the bottom of the outsole is combined with rubber and the top with EVA. It stands for Ethylene Vinyl Acetate, which is an elastic material.
 
Leather soles: The oldest and most original shoe soles are leather soles, which are now part of the handicrafts. These outsoles are very high quality and hard because they are completely natural and handmade. These soles are usually used in handmade shoes. This cumin is very strong in absorbing foot sweat and keeps the foot cool in summer. But in winter, this shoe can not be used, because it absorbs all the water from the surface.
 
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Guide to Safety Shoes Toe Cap Selection

One of the first decisions you make when choosing work shoes or safety boots is whether the shoes have a steel, composite, or alloy toe cap. The toe cap in safety shoes is a cap on the front of the shoe that protects the toes from objects falling on the foot and prevents them from being crushed. The toe cap is paired with the anti-nail plate that is placed under the safety shoes and the shoe is resistant to the penetration of sharp objects.
While any type of toe cap provides protection and safety, the use of any material in the toe cap has its pros and cons. Here are some basic differences between different types of toe caps for different industries.
 
Composite Toe Caps
Over the past decade, composite safety shoes have become increasingly popular among workers who spend long periods in the workplace due to their lightweight and comfortable design. In the safety shoe industry, composite toe caps are often made of a combination of non-metallic materials such as carbon fiber, plastic, kevlar, or fiberglass. According to the CSA standard, composite toe caps meet the same safety requirements as steel ones. Currently, in the group of composite toe caps, plastic and fiberglass are receiving more attention due to their low price and availability.
Safety boots with a composite toe cap is ideal for workers who constantly have to go through metal detectors and security gates (such as airport workers or security personnel).
Pros:
• Less weight, which makes work shoes easier to use for a long time.
• Free of metal
• Prevents spark
• Electric and thermal insulation
Cons:
• Bulkier than other toe caps 
 
Steel Toe Caps
With a history of more than 80 years, steel toe safety shoes have been the standard of safety for workers in construction, manufacturing, and material transportation for decades. This is the best-priced and most popular option to protect your feet from accidents.
However, steel toe caps can be heavy and make workers tired during the day. It is also problematic for personnel working with high voltages because they can conduct electricity.
Pros:
• The strongest toe protector
• The toe cap is smaller than the composite ones and makes the shoe volume smaller
• Cheaper than other options
Cons:
• Heavier than alloy and composite toe caps
• Can decay or dent
• In cold weather, conveys the feeling of cold to the feet
• Conducts electricity
• Can’t be used in environments with metal detectors
 
Alloy Toe Caps
Alloy toe caps are made of lightweight materials such as titanium or aluminum or a combination of other lightweight materials. Recently, due to its lightness and comfortable design, alloy toe caps have become more popular.
Pros:
• Slimmer than steel toe caps
• 30 to 50 percent lighter than steel toe caps
• More space for the toes
Cons:
• More expensive than steel toe caps
• Not as strong as a steel ones
• Conducts electricity 
• Can’t be used in environments with metal detectors
 
Recommendation of Ark Safety Industry experts about toe caps selection
The final decision depends on your budget, job, and working conditions. Most non-metallic toe caps are used for environments where there is a possibility of electric shock. Although some users of safety shoe products want to use plastic toe caps for the lightness and comfort of their shoes, it is recommended to share issues related to your work environment with Ark Safety Industry experts when purchasing safety footwear. We will recommend the best and most suitable safety shoes in accordance with the required standards. Types of safety shoes used in the Ark Safety Industry are steel and composite caps (plastic) that comply with the standards defined by the Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. Choosing and buying safety shoes suitable for the environment and working conditions is one of the most important principles of safety and health, which is forgotten sometimes.



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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization is one of the United Nations agencies whose most important goal is to coordinate and improve the public health conditions. The WHO was established in 1945 with the approval of the General Assembly of the United Nations and adopted its constitution in 1946. The constitution came into force on April 7, 1948, which later known as World Health Day.  
The World Health Organization is responsible for guiding and coordinating the promotion of people’s health within the framework of the United Nations. The organization`s experts set health standards and help countries deal with health problems. According to the WHO, the main goal of the organization is to "achieve public health at the highest possible level as the most fundamental right of every human being, regardless of race, religion, political beliefs, economic status or social status". According to this organization’s policies, health is a condition in which a person`s physical, mental, and social condition should be perfectly decent and is not limited to the absence of illness or disability. 
At its first meeting in 1948, members of the World Health Organization chose global health priorities for malaria, mother and child health, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, nutrition, and environmental health, most of which are still global health concerns. 
One of the most important steps taken by the World Health Organization in combating the spread of infectious diseases is the development of international health laws, which oblige countries to identify and control these diseases. In 2005, during a new review of the rules, SARS and new forms of the flu were added to the list of serious diseases. Another innovative move is the establishment of the Center for Strategic Health Operations, which uses the latest technologies in the field of epidemics of diseases and natural disasters to coordinate information and actions between different countries around the world. Given the prevalence of chronic diseases and lifestyle changes in poor and rich communities, the organization has developed a global strategy of nutrition and health to fight against heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes. At the United Nations third millennium session, health became the center of development, and three of the eight main goals of development goals in the third millennium were directly related to health, and the rest were related to health indirectly. 

Structure of the World Health Organization

The member countries of the World Health Organization send representatives to the World Health Assembly, which are the main decision-making body of the organization. The member representatives come together annually at the organization`s headquarters in Geneva, and in addition to appointing the organization`s secretary-general for five years, they review the organization`s financial policies and approves budget proposals for health programs. The implementation of the decisions and policies of the Assembly is carried out by the executive board of the WHO. The board consists of 36 health professionals selected by the Assembly for 3 years. Also, the secretariat of this organization has the role of providing technical and managerial assistance to member countries to propose development programs for their country. All members of the United Nations can become members of the World Health Organization. Other countries can become members if their membership application is approved by the World Public Health Assembly. Currently, 193 countries are members of this global organization.
The World Health Organization is headquartered in Switzerland.
 

Budget of the WHO

The World Health Organization provides funding through membership fees and voluntary donations from countries and organizations. These credits are spent in the following four general areas:
- Basic health interventions, including epidemic control
- Health system policies and products, including the quality of medicines and technologies
- General health determinants including nutrition and smoking
- Effective support of member countries including management and information technology
75% of this credit is spent in the representative offices and regional offices and 25% in the central office of the organization. More than 30 percent of the World Health Organization`s funding is spent in Africa.

World Health Organization activities

The priority of this organization, according to its statutes, is to determine the direction and coordination of management in all international health activities. This objective allows member states to identify difficulties and health problems that have priority around the world, and to think of strategies, principles, and programs that collectively impact these policies to achieve the goal. The organization also has a special responsibility in determining and promoting international standards in the field of health. These responsibilities are in the following areas:
- Prevention and control of specific diseases
- Development of comprehensive health services
- Family health
- Environmental Health
- Health statistics
- Biological research 

Prevention and treatment of specific diseases

Almost all infectious diseases have been the subject of the World Health Organization, or are now the subject of the organization`s activities. Smallpox eradication is an example of international health cooperation, and the organization is now leading the global fight against AIDS. The World Health Organization also focuses on non-communicable diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease, mental disorders, oral diseases). The organization`s main focus now is on the emergence of Covid-19. 

The development of comprehensive health services

The most important activity of the World Health Organization is to expand and support international health policy and to publicize the comprehensive health program of countries. The World Health Organization has been a major player in promoting national, regional, and global health strategies for all until 2000. Environmental health has always been an important activity of the World Health Organization. The organization is pursuing new activities to protect the quality of water, air, food, occupational health, and radiation protection, as well as early detection of new risks posed by technological advances. 

Health statistics

Since its foundation, the WHO has focused on the publication of a variety of health and mortality statistics on health problems.
The data is published as follows:
- Weekly epidemiological report
- World Health Statistics Quarterly
- World Health Statistical Yearbook

Biomedical Research

The World Health Organization is strengthening and coordinating research work and has established a global network of partner centers for the WHO. In addition to promoting research, the WHO awards incentives to researchers and research centers. The WHO operates as a center for collecting, reviewing, and exchanging information on health issues; and its publications cover hundreds of topics on a variety of health subjects.
 
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How to Clean Work Boots and Safety Shoes Based on Their Material

Work boots or safety shoes are an essential part of personal protective equipment used in the workplace to reduce physical hazards. Safety shoes are used to protect our feet while maintaining and cleaning them is essential for keeping feet healthy and safe. Cleaning and monitoring of safety shoes to avoid reducing their effectiveness in protecting the feet are very important. Here are the best ways to clean shoes based on the type of material used. 

Leather

Leather is one of the most popular materials used in the exterior of safety shoes. The reasons for using leather in safety shoes are its high resistance to wear and tear, as well as the flexibility of movement that it shows during heavy work. Natural leather also absorbs moisture to keep the feet dry and comfortable during the day.
The first step in taking care of your leather shoes is to make sure your shoes are completely dry. Then it is necessary to use a shoe brush to remove dust, salt, and other sticky materials on its surface. The next step is to apply the appropriate wax or leather material and rub it on the shoe using a soft cloth. Keep doing this until the wax reaches the entire surface of the shoe and the stains disappear from the surface of the leather shoe. After that expose the shoe to the open air to dry. To keep the leather shiny, you can use waxes based on palmitoleic acid (like mink oil), which has similar properties to Vaseline. Finally, the use of the waterproof spray is recommended to protect safety shoes against snow and rain stains and help it withstand water penetration.
To remove grease stains and protein stains (such as blood or urea), use a cloth soaked in a solution of water, mild soap, and a very small amount of vinegar and smoothly wipe the area. It should be noted that in this case, to dry leather shoes, they should not be exposed to direct sunlight and heat.

Synthetic

Synthetic materials are also used in the production of safety footwear, and are composed of materials that have been manmade, rather than are natural. Synthetic materials can be treated to prevent staining, wrinkling, improve water-resistance and so forth, but how should you clean it?
We recommend removing stains and contaminants on the surface of the synthetic leather with a soft brush or cloth. Then use a mild soap solution and cold water to wash the safety shoes with synthetic leather. After cleaning, to make synthetic shoes dry, expose the safety shoes to the air, and the heat will have a positive effect on the synthetic leather construction. 

Suede

Suede is a type of leather that has a non-glossy top layer with a special finish. Suede leather is usually softer than regular leather and has less strength and durability. Due to the lower resistance of suede maintenance of it is more sensitive.
To start cleaning and maintaining the suede, use a suede shoe brush to remove any dirt and salt. Then apply a dilute solution of sodium bicarbonate, also known as baking soda, to the remaining stains and the entire surface of the suede and allow it to absorb the sunscreen over a day. Then clean the safety shoe with a cloth and remove the baking soda from the surface of the shoe. Finally, use a special waterproof spray to make your suede safety shoes more resistant to the water and weather. Glossy sprays and oils such as paraffin cannot be used to maintain the beauty and appearance of suede.

Rubber

Rubber is another material commonly used in the manufacture of safety shoes. Rubber is an excellent insulator that makes the shoe electrically resistant and has shock-absorbing properties. Although the rubber has high durability, it is not breathable and it can restrict the movement of the shoe and cause discomfort. However, the rubber is water-resistant and allows people to work in humid environments to keep their feet dry during the day. It is relatively easy to clean safety shoes with a rubber material.
Use high pressure water to clean your rubber shoes and use baking soda solution to remove dirt. The pressure of the water cleans the mud and other materials, and baking soda removes the remaining stains on safety shoes made of rubber. Care should be taken to ensure that no water enters the shoe. Water penetration into the shoe can damage the inside of the shoe. After removing dust and stains on the plastic, use a stiff brush to separate any pebbles and sand from the sole of the shoe. Scratches on plastic shoes can be removed with olive oil. Finally, expose the shoes to the air to dry.

Final advice of Ark Safety Industry experts

Before buying any type of safety shoes, it is better to check the conditions of the work environment and the place of use. It is recommended not to use suede or nubuck leather for oily, wet, and muddy environments. In addition, because leather is a natural material with a protein base, the use of leather safety shoes in environments prone to the growth of enzymes and bacteria, which may damage the structure of the leather, should be considered deeply.
Given that most Ark safety shoes are made of leather if you want to clean your work shoes or safety shoes with water, be sure to consider the amount of water you use for cleaning. Repeated soaking of leather with water causes the leather shoes to dry and crack. If you have to expose your shoes or safety shoes to too much water, remove the insoles and fill them with the newspaper. During the hours when you are not using safety shoes, placing a newspaper inside the shoe will absorb the water and moisture faster. Of course, the use of leather shoes in wet environments and high humidity reduces the life of leather shoes.

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